EACH of the colonies of New England had its military chieftain. A captain was as necessary as a magistrate. Miles Standish came with the pilgrims from Leyden to Plymouth; but, so far as appears, he came as a soldier rather than as a Separatist. He was a man of pure morals, but never identified himself with the church at Plymouth. It was not required in that colony, as it was in Massachusetts and in New Haven, that military officers should be church-members. Of the expedition sent by Massachusetts against the Pe-quots in 1636, John Endicott was chief captain; John Underbill, Nathanael Turner, and William Jenningson, were subordinate captains; and there were other-inferior officers. As the number of privates did not exceed one hundred in number, Underbill, in his narrative of the expedition, apologizes for the unusual proportion of officers. " I would not have the world wonder at the great number of commanders to so few men, but know that the Indians' fight far differs from the Christian practice, for they most commonly divide themselves into small bodies ; so that we are forced to neglect our usual way, and to subdivide our divisions to answer theirs, and not linking it any disparagement to any captain


to go forth against an enemy with a squadron of men, taking the ground from the old and ancient, practice when they chose captains of hundreds and captains of thousands, captains of fifties And captains of tens. We conceive a captain signifieth the chief in way of command of any body committed to his charge for the time being; whether of more or less, it makes no matter in power, though in honor it does."

Eaton and Davenport not knowing, when they left England, that they should settle afar from their friends in Massachusetts, had not been careful to bring with them a military chief. During the winter they spent at-the Bay they found a valuable accession to their company in Nathanael Turner, one of the three captains of the first Pequot expedition who were subordinate only to Endicott. Having lost his house at Lynn (then called Sagus) by fire, in January, 1637, "with all that was in it save the persons," he was free to listen to proposals from a company, which, with large resources, proposed to settle at Quinnipiac. He listened, and was persuaded to take part in the responsibilities and rewards of the undertaking. Capt. Turner was invested with military command at Quinnipiac during the time of the provisional authority which preceded the permanent settlement of civil affairs in the plantation ; for, on the 25th of November, 1639, only thirty days after the organization of the court, and, so far as appears on the record, before any appointment of military officers had been made, it was " ordered that every one that bears arms shall be completely furnished with arms; viz., a musket, a sword, bandoleers, a rest, a pound of powder, twenty bullets fitted to their musket, or four


pounds of pistol-shot or swan-shot at least, and be ready to show them in the market-place upon Monday, the i6th of this (sic) month, before Capt. Turner and Lieut. Seeley, under the penalty of twenty shillings fine for every default or absence."

On the first day of September following, "Mr. Turner was chosen captain to have the command and ordering of all martial affairs of this plantation, as setting and ordering of watches, exercising and training of soldiers, and whatsoever of like nature appertaining to his office ; all which he is to do with all faithfulness and diligence, and, be ready at all times to do whatsoever service the occasions of the town may require." This seems to have been a permanent appointment; for he continued in office, till, having determined to visit the mother country, he had embarked in Lamberton's vessel. Then "the governor propounded whether the military affairs of the town may be comfortably carried on without a captain, or whether it were not convenient to choose a captain instead of Capt. Turner, not knowing when he will return. After some debate, Mr. Malbon was chosen captain, with liberty to resign his place to Capt. Turner at his return."

Robert Seeley, above mentioned as lieutenant before "\ the adoption of the fundamental agreement, was for- ] mally elected to that office Aug. 6, 1642. In 1649 he asked the town to excuse him from further service, but the Court was unwilling to do so; and "it was propounded that the men in the town would underwrite what they would give toward the maintenance of Lieut. Seeley in his place." Before the settlement of New Haven, Seeley had been the lieutenant of Capt. Mason


in the expedition from Connecticut against the Pe quots in 1637. He had, passed Quinnipiac in the chase of the Pequots westward, and, unless Turner was with him in that pursuit, had been the first of those who soon afterward settled there as planters to set his eyes on its hills1 and meadows, its creeks, rivers, and fair haven.

Soon after the inspection of arms appointed in November, 1639, it was ordered that a similar inspection should take place quarterly; and it was defined that " every one that beareth arms" meant " every male from sixteen to sixty years of age, who shall dwell or sojourn wfthin this plantation or any part of the bounds and limits of it for a month together." The number of persons thus made subject to military duty was in 1642 not less than two hundred and seventeen, as there were then thirty-one watches, each consisting of seven men. The whole company was divided into four squadrons, each commanded by a sergeant; and the squadrons being trained in succession, one on Saturday of each week for four weeks, there was every fifth week a general training of the whole company, which occurred always on Monday. The squadron-training was omitted that week. At a later date the number of general trainings was reduced to six in a year; and after the organization, in 1645, of a volunteer artillery company, whose members were exempt from squadron-training, the four squadrons were exercised two at once, and only required to train each six times a year.

Besides the officers already mentioned, " the trained band " had an ensign, four sergeants, and four corporals. In 1642 the ensign, or antient as he was usually styled,


was Francis Newman, afterward governor of the jurisdiction. The sergeants contemporary with him were William Andrews, Thomas Munson, John Clark, and Thomas Jeffrey; and the corporals were Thomas Kim-berley, John Moss, John Nash, and Samuel Whitehead.

Fines for absence and late-coming, whether on days of general training or on squadron days, were given up to the military officers and company for their encouragement, " to be disposed in powder and shot, that they may set up marks to shoot at, or may furnish themselves for their military exercises." A portion of Oyster-shell Field was set apart for "a shooting-place;" and here, on training-days, the soldiers were exercised in target practice.

The arms which the militia were required to show were, in the revision of the orders, specified as " a good serviceable gun, a good sword, bandoleers, a rest, all to be allowed by the military officers ; one pound of good gunpowder, four pounds of bullets, either fitted for his gun, or pistol bullets, with four fathom of match fit for service with every matchlock, and four or five good flints fitted for every firelock piece, all in good order$ and ready for any sudden occasion, service, or view." The order makes it indifferent whether the gun be a matchlock or a firelocks only if the soldier have a firelock, he must be furnished with a sufficiency of flints, and if his gun is a matchlock, he must have a sufficiency of match. Any musket of the seventeenth century would seem to us ludicrously inferior to those with which modern soldiers are provided; but even the matchlock gave its possessor, so long as he had a rest and a match, immense superiority over an enemy destitute of fire-arms


The muskets of that day had no bayonet; but soldiers were sometimes exercised in the use of the pike, a weapon consisting of a long wooden shaft pointed with steel. New Haven, while requiring each soldier to be equipped with a musket at his own cost, provided pikes at the public expense.

" It is ordered that a convenient company and number of pikes be provided at the town's charge, that the military and artillery companies may be trained and exercised in the use of them, but no man hereby to be freed from providing, and at all times continuing furnished, with all other arms, powder, and shot, as before expressed ; and that a chest be made in some convenient place in the meeting-house, to keep the said pikes from warping or other hurt or decay. And Thomas Munson and the rest of the sergeants undertool to have it done without delay; and Mr. Pearce was appointed to give out and lay up the pikes from time to time, that they receive no damage betwixt times of service ; and in consideration hereof and of some bodily weakness, he is at present freed from training, and allowed to provide a man to watch for him."

In respect to defensive armor, the following order gives information: " It is ordered that When canvas and cotton-wool may conveniently be had, due notice and warning shall be given; and then every family within the plantation shall accordingly provide and after continue, furnished with a coat well made, and so quilted with cotton-wool as may be fit for service, and a comfortable defence against Indian arrows; and the tailors about the town shall consider and advise how to make them, and take care that they be done without unnecessary delay."

Capt. Turner was by virtue of his office chief captain of the watch, appointing the watch-masters and designating the watchmen to be subject to each, though


not without the approval of the magistrates. "It is ordered that a constant and strict watch shall be kept every night in this plantation from the first of March to the last of October every year ordinarily, leaving extraordinary cases, either of mildness or of sharpness of weather or times of danger, to the governor and magistrates, who may remit or continue the watch longer, or increase and order them as seasons and occasions may require. But in the ordinary course the watch is every night to consist of one intrusted as master of the watch (who is diligently to attend and observe all the orders made by this court for the watch while they remain in force), and of six other watchmen. This watch-master is to be appointed yearly, and the six watchmen to be sorted, as may be most convenient in respect of their dwellings, by the captain, with approbation of the magistrates. But if by death, remove, or any other occasion, after the watches are settled in their course for the year, a breach be made, and so cause of an alteration, the captain shall with all convenient speed order and settle them again, so as may be most convenient for the town, and shall give seasonable warning to all the watch-masters whom it con-cerneth, that the service may go on without interruption or disorder."

What the orders for the watch were, may be learned from the following record: " At a court holden the 3d of June, 1640, all the masters of the watches received their charge and orders as followeth: -

" 1 The drummer is to beat -the drum at the going down of the sun.

"2. The master of the watch is to be at the court of guard


within half an hour after the setting of the sun, with his arms complete.

"3. All the watchmen are to be there within an hour after the1 setting of the sun, with their arms complete and their guns ready charged; and if any of them come after the time appointed, or be defective in their arms, they are to pay one shilling fine ; for total absence five shillings fine. And if the master of the watch transgress, either in late coming, defectiveness in arms, or total absence, his fine is to be double to the watchmen's_ fine in like case.

" 4. The master of the watch is to set the watch an hour after sunset, dividing the night into three watches, sending forth two and two together to walk their turns, as well without the town as within the town and the suburbs also, and to bring to the court of guard any person or persons whom they shall find disorderly or in a suspicious manner within doors or without, whether English or Indians, or any other strangers whatsoever, and keep them there safe uqtil the morning, and then bring them before one of the magistrates. If the watchmen in any part of their watch see any apparent common danger which they cannot otherwise prevent or stop, then they are to make an alarm by discharging their two guns, which are" to be answered by him that stands at the door to keep sentinel, and that also seconded by beating of the drum. And if the danger be by fire, then with the alarm the watchmen are-to cry fire, fire. And if it be by the discovery of an enemy, then they are to cry arm, arm, all the town over, yet so as to leave a guard at the court of guard.

" 5. The master is to take care that one man always stand sentinel in a sentinel posture without the watch-house, to hearken diligently after the watchmen, and see that no man come near the watch-house or court of guard; no, not those of the present watch who have been walking the round, but that he require them to stand, and call forth the master of the watch to question, proceed, or receive them, as he shall see cause. The master of the watch is also to see that none of the watchmen sleep at all, and that none of their guns remain uncharged till the watch break up (and then they may discharge), and also that no man lay aside his arms while the watch continues.


" 6. Every master of the watch in his course is to warn both his own watch and the master of the succeeding watch, four and twenty hours before they are to watch, and not to do it slightly, but either to do it themselves or to leave the warning with some sufficient for such a trust.

"Lastly. If any master of the watch shall fail either in the warning or ordering of the watch in any of the forenamed particulars, or shall break up the watch in the morning before it have been full half an hour daylight, or neglect to complain to one of the magistrates of the neglects or defects of any of the watchmen' he is to be fined by the court according to the quality of his offence."

In 1645 "it is ordered that the market-place be forthwith cleared, and the wood carried to the watch-house, and there piled for the use and succor of the watch in cold weather, and the care of this business is committed to the four sergeants." From a record four years later it appears that this work of clearing the market-place was to be performed by the inhabitants, each working in his turn either personally or by proxy; that some trees were then still standing; and that some of the inhabitants had not yet done their share of the labor. Probably a wood-pile had been provided sufficient for " the use and succor " of the watch for four years; after the lapse of which time "it was propounded that some wood might *be provided for the watch. The sergeants were desired to inquire who hath not wrought in the market-place, that they might cut some wood out, and *in the meantime the treasurer was to provide a load."

"In 1647 it was propounded that men would clear wood and stones from their pale sides, that the watchmen in dark nights might the more safely walk the rounds without hurt thereby."


On sabbath and lecture days and other days ordinary and extraordinary, of solemn worship, the watch was kept as at night.

" The sentinels and they that walk the round in their course, shall diligently attend their trust and duty, and shall have their matches lighted during the time of meeting, if they serve with matchlock pieces."

At first all who belonged to the watch, that is to say all persons subject to military service, were required to come every Lord's day to the meeting completely armed; and all other adult males were required to bring their swords, " no man exempted save Mr. Eaton, our pastor, Mr. James, Mr. Samuel Eaton, and the two deacons." Afterward, when the military company had been divided into four squadrons, it was ordered that one squadron in its course should come to public worship with arms complete, and "be at the meeting-house before the second drum hath left beating, their guns ready charged with a fit proportion of match for matchlocks, and flints ready fitted in their firelock pieces, and shot and powder for five or six charges at least." Such an order must have secured for each service of public worship'a guard of fifty full-armed men, and one hundred and fifty more equipped with swords. However, one of the rules of the artillery company requiring that " every one of this company purposely coming to any general or particular court, or to the ordinances at any public meeting, whether on the Lord's days, lecture days, days of solemn fasting or thanksgiving, shall carry and wear his sword by his "side," affords ground for an inference that the order requiring the whole adult male population to

MILITARY AFFAIRS. 303 wear their swords, had in 1645 been repealed or become inoperative.

The other plantations conducted their military affairs in a manner similar to that of New Haven. Indeed, the colony laws concerning military affairs so closely resemble those of the principal plantation as to suggest a common origin. They specify the arms with which every male within the jurisdiction shall be equipped; require that " every captain or chief officer chosen in any of the plantations, for the military affairs, shall from time to time be propounded to the next general court after he is chosen, for approbation and confirmation ;" enjoin inspection of arms " once in each quarter of a year at least, but oftener if there be cause;" provide that " there shall be every year at least six training days;" order that "a fourth part of the trained band in every plantation shall in their course come constantly to the worship of God every Lord's day, and (such as can come) on lecture days; to be at the meeting-house at latest before the second drum 'hath left beating, with their arms complete, their guns ready charged, their match for their matchlocks and flints ready fitted to their firelock guns, with shot and powder for at least five shots besides the charge in their guns;" and " that a strict watch be kept in the night in all the plantations within this jurisdiction." Exemption from military duty is defined as follows ; viz.: " Upon consideration of public service and other due respects, it is ordered that all magistrates within this jurisdiction, and teaching elders, shall at all times hereafter be freed, not only in their persons, but each of them shall have one son or servant, by virtue of his place or office, freed from all


watching, warding, and training. And it is further ordered that all elders, deputies for courts intrusted for judicature, all the chief military officers (as captains, lieutenants, and ensigns), the jurisdiction treasurer, deacons, and all physicians, school-masters, and surgeons, allowed by authority in any of these plantations, all masters of ships and other vessels above fifteen tons, all public millers constantly employed, with others for the present discharged for personal weakness and infirmity, shall, in their own persons, in time of peace and safety, be freed from the said services. And that all other seamen and ship-carpenters, and such as hold farms above two miles from any of the plantations, train only twice a year at such times as shall be ordered either by the authority or by the military officers of the plantation. But all persons freed and exempted from the respective services as before, shall yet in all respects provide, keep, and maintain in a constant readiness, complete arms, and all other military provisions as other men; magistrates, and teaching elders excepted, who yet shall be constantly furnished for all such sons and servants as are hereby freed from the forementioned services."

The artillery company at New Haven seems in later years to have become so far a colonial company that "Mr. Chittenden of Guilford" was one of its sergeants. A company of troopers was organized in 1656. "It is ordered that sixteen horses shall be provided and kept in the five towns upon the main, in this jurisdiction, with suitable saddles, bridles, pistols, and other furniture that is necessary toward the raising of a small, troop for the service of the country, in an equal pro-


portion as they can be divided, according to the estate of each plantation, which is as followeth: Six from New Haven, four from Milford, two from Stamford, and four from Guilford and Branford, and that the persons who shall freely undertake or be appointed thereunto, shall be free from rates, both for their persons and the said horses, also from training with the foot company, and from any press for themselves and horses to other public service, and shall have what other privileges are granted to troopers in the Massachusetts or Connecticut colonies, provided that such men who shall be appointed to this service shall be diligent in the use of all due means to fit themselves and horses for the same at home in their several plantations, after which this Court will consider how they may be improved in a public way of training."

At the same court it was "ordered, that, for the encouragement of soldiers in their military exercise, every plantation shall provide a partisan for th^ir lieutenant, colors for their ensign, halberds for their sergeants, with drums fit for service, with a certain number of pikes, as hereafter expressed. New Haven being furnished, Milford is to have sixteen pikes, Stamford sixteen, Guilford twelve, Southold and Branford eight apiece; and, further, that half a pound of powder for every soldier be allowed by every town out of their town rate, once in a year, to the chief officer, to be by him bestowed upon them, according- to their due deserts, to be spent as he shall order, by shooting at a mark three times in a year, for some small prize which each town shall provide, in value not above five shillings a time, and not less than two shillings sixpence, which


shall be ordered either to one or more, as the officer shall appoint; and that each town provide a good pair of hilts for soldiers *to play at cudgels with; and that they exercise themselves in playing at backsword, &c.; that they learn how to handle their weapons for the defence of themselves and offence of their enemies; and that the deputies of each plantation speak to the teaching elders there to take some fit opportunity to speak to the soldiers something by way of exhortation to quicken them to a conscientious attendance to this duty; and that soldiers in time of their vacancy do exercise themselves in running, wrestling, leaping, and the like manly exercises, the better to fit their bodies for service and hardship; and that all other exercises, as stool-ball, ninepins, quoits, and such like games" be forbidden, and not to be used till the military exercise of the day be finished, and the company dismissed from that service."

The colony of New Haven, though always prepared for war, had no opportunity for great or brilliant achievements. The Indians in their immediate neighborhood were, peaceable and friendly; and though tribes more remote sometimes threatened hostilities against the whole European population of New England, and though war with the Dutch was at one time imminent, yet the period of which our history treats, exhibits no battles like those of the Pequot war immediately preceding it, or of the wars subsequent to the union with Connecticut.

There was no disturbance at all during the first five years. The union of the towns into a colony, and of


the four colonies into a confederation, was hastened by portents of a general war with the Indians. The same year in which the union was consummated, the commissioners of the United Colonies, feeling that they were under obligation to defend Uncas, the sachem of the Mohegans, and the ally of the English, from the vengeance of the Narragansets, requested Connecticut and New Haven to undertake this service. Accordingly six soldiers were sent from New Haven to Norwich in a shallop, "to join with eight from Hartford for Uncas's defence against the assaults which may be made upon him by the Narraganset Indians." This squad of soldiers remained with Uncas till messengers from the commissioners of the United Colonies had for the moment dissuaded the Narragansets from their hostile purposes against the Mohegans. Two years later, the Narragansets, having in violation of their promise resumed hostilities, assistance was again sent to Uncas from New Haven and from Connecticut. These auxiliaries remained with him several months. A special meeting of the commissioners of the United Colonies being meanwhile called, they determined that an immediate war with the Narragansets was both justifiable and necessary. New Haven was required to send thirty of the three hundred soldiers composing the army of invasion. In three days after the declaration of war, a company of forty men ready to march was raised in Massachusetts, as the first fruits of her quota of one hundred and ninety men. The arrival at Mohegan of this advanced company, relieved the Connecticut and New Haven men so long absent from their homes on garrison duty; and the spirited preparations made by


the English induced the Narragansets to sign articles of peace, which made it unnecessary for New Haven to send her quota to the war. From time to time the Narragansets broke and renewed their promises, till, in King Philip's war, which occurred after the union of New Haven with Connecticut, they were driven from their territory, never to repossess it.

Simultaneously with the first of the expeditions to Mohegan, there was danger in the west as well as in the east; the Dutch being involved in an Indian war, and the Indians being not careful to distinguish between Dutch and English. The same month in which the shallop was sent to Norwich, the Dutch governor proposed that one hundred soldiers should be raised out of the English plantations, and led by Capt. Underhillx of Stamford, to assist the Dutch against the Indians, promising to pay the whole expense " by bills of exchange

1 Capt. John Underhill, formerly of Boston. After, if not in consequence of, the preaching of antinomianism at Boston, he fell into the vilest immorality, and' found it expedient to change his residence. Removing first to Piscataqua, he came afterward to Stamford. There he well received on account of his professional ability, the town agreeing to pay him a salary as their captain; and the jurisdiction, upon his application for a loan of 20 to supply his present occasions, ordering that if the lending of this 20 may be a means to settle the captain, and if they conceive his settlement may tend to their comfort and security, and if the town of Stamford will see the said sum duly repaid, the jurisdiction is willing to lend the said sum to prevent the snares of larger offers for his remove." Very soon, however, after this endeavor to retain him in the colony of New Haven, Underhill was secured by the Dutch, and intrusted with the chief command in the war they were waging with the Indians. After some good service rendered on Long Island, he led a force of one hundred and thirty men to Greenwich, surprised an Indian village in the night, and, by a terrific slaughter, almost equalling in the number of the slain that in which he had been a principal actor at Mystic fort, persuaded the natives to terminate a conflict in which they were so inferior to their foes.


into Holland." Stamford, being nearest to the scene of danger, was disposed to join with the Dutch in chastising the merciless savages. But the General Court, "not clearly understanding the rise and cause of the war, and remembering that they Could not make war without the consent of the other confederate colonies, did not see how they might afford the aid propounded without a meeting and consent of the commissioners for the rest of the jurisdictions. But if peace be not settled this winter, so soon as the commissioners may meet in the spring, both the ground of the war and the aid or assistance desired may be taken into due consideration ; and if in the mean time there be want of corn for men and food for cattle, in supply of what the Indians have destroyed, these plantations will afford what help they may."

We hear nothing more of the proposal that the English should join with the Dutch to chastise the Indians. On the contrary, we find the Dutch, a few years afterward, when their own troubles had come to an end, charged with selling fire-arms to the Indians, and inciting them to hostilities against Connecticut and New Haven, between which colonies and the Dutch there were some matters in dispute. This quarrel was still further inflamed when news came of war between Holland and England, so that in the spring of 1653 the .commissioners of the United Colonies, by a vote of seven to one, declared war against the colony of New Netherlands, having, as the majority believed, sufficient evidence that the Dutch governor had plotted with the Indians for the destruction of the English. In the autumn, by a similar vote of seven to one, they


declared war against Ninigret, sachem of the Niantics But the General Court of Massachusetts, nullifying the action of the commissioners, on the ground that the evidence of a plot was insufficient, refused to contribute her quota of "troops. The General Court of New Haven jurisdiction, declaring that the Massachusetts General Court and Council " have broken their covenant with us in acting directly contrary to the articles of confederation," saw themselves "called to seek for help elsewhere," and could " conclude of no better way than to make their addresses to the State of England." Connecticut joined with them, and the appeal was successful. Cromwell, listening to their declaration, that, "unless the Dutch be either removed or subjected, so far at least that these colonies may be freed from injurious affronts, and secured against the dangers and mischievous effects which daily, grow upon them by their plotting with the Indians, and furnishing them with arms against the Eriglish, and that the league and confederation betwixt the four united English .colonies be confirmed and settled according to the true sense (and, till this year, the continued interpretation) of the articles, the peace and comfort of these smaller western* colonies will be much hazarded," sent a fleet to subjugate New Netherlands.

The plan, as formed after the arrival of the fleet at Boston, was, to raise an army to co-operate with the ships, to consist of two hundred from Massachusetts, two hundred from the ships, two hundred from Connecticut,. " and one hundred and thirty-three from this colony, which the Court must; now agree to raise in equal proportion, which was done as follows; viz.


From New Haven, fifty; from Milford, twenty-one: from Guilford, seventeen; from Stamford, twenty; from Southold, fourteen ; from Branford, eleven; New Haven and Milford having one or two less in proportion than the rest, because of seamen that are to go from thence, which, if not provided for, will put them above their proportion. Of which one hundred and thirty-three, these officers were chosen : Lieut. Seeley, captain; Lieut. Nash, lieutenant; Richard Baldwin, of Milford, ensign; Sergt. Munson, Sergt. Whitehead, Sergt. Tibballs, of Milford, and Sergt. Bartlett, of Guilford, sergeants; Robert Basset, chief drummer, and Anthony Elcott to b'e under him; Mr. Augur, and John Brockett, surgeons; and Mr. Pierson is chosen and appointed to ga along with this company as their minister, for their encouragement, spiritual instruction, and comfort; and the corporals are, Corp. Boykin, John Cooper, Henry Botsford of Milford, and Thomas Stevens of Guilford; but this last is only for this present service, and that he proceed no higher in any other office, because he is not a freeman, and that the chief military officer be acquainted with it." -

The caveat of the Court, in respect to Corp. Stevens, illustrates the care taken by the New Haven Colony to commit military authority to none but church-members. For. some reason, - perhaps for the reason that no church-member could be found who would willingly go, - an exception to the rule was allowed in this instance ; but Corp. Stevens was made to understand that he could rise to no higher office, and that his rank would cease when the expedition returned.


" The Court, considering the great weight of this business, and that all good success depends upon God's blessing, did therefore order that the fourth day of the next week shall be set apart by all the plantations of this jurisdiction, to seek God in an exjra-ordinary way, in fasting and prayer, for a blessing upon the enterprise abroad, and for the safety of the plantations at home.

"The Court considered of what provisions were necessary to send forth with these men for a month, and agreed upon six tuns of beer, six thousand biscuits, nine barrels of pork, six barrels of beef, four hogsheads of pease, three hogsheads of flour, six-firkins of butter, five hundred (pounds) of cheese, three anchors of liquor, trays, dishes or cans, pails, kettles; and that every man have a good firelock musket, with other arms suitable; a knapsack, with one pound of powder, and twenty-four musket bullets, or four pounds of pistol shot; and, for a stock beside, in the whole, two barrels of powder, three hundred weight of musket bullets, and one hundred weight of pistol shot, with twenty spades and shovels, ten axes, and ten mattocks."

" It is ordered that the charges of soldiers, horse or foot, wherever provided for, shall be at the jurisdiction's charge in equal proportion."

" It is ordered that the magistrates and deputies at New Haven shall be a committee to order matters which concern this design, but cannot now be foreseen, as occasions present, and what they do is to stand good as if the Court did it."

" It is ordered that Johnson's lighter, shall be pressed to attend the service, for transporting of men and provisions as there is occasion."

" It is ordered that all vessels which come into any harbor in this jurisdiction, which may be fit to attend this service, shall be made stay of for the same, on behalf of the commonwealth of England, till further order."

1" It is ordered that as soon as the army is past, watching and warding shall begin in an extraordinary way, as may suit with every town's conveniency and safety, and then all Indians are to be restrained from coming into any of our plantations without leave."


These preparations for war were ordered on the 23d of June, the governor having on that day " acquainted the Court with some letters he had received from Mr. Leete from Boston, informing that the design against the Dutch is like to go- on." But the design did not go on, for in a few days came news of peace concluded between England and Holland. At the next session held July 5, "the governor informed the Court that there were with him this day since dinner two men, sent as messengers from the Dutch governor, to inquire of the truth of the peace which they hear by report is concluded betwixt England and Holland, who desired that two or three lines might be sent to certify the same; which the Court desired the governor to do, and ordered that a copy of the proclamation should be sent also; both which were presently done, and the messengers dismissed."

New Haven being thus restrained from executing her design against the Dutch, turned her attention 'to Ninigret, who, emboldened by the nullifying attitude of Massachusetts, was preparing to destroy the Indian tribes friendly to the English. In August she despatched Lieut. Seeley, Connecticut sending also Capt. Mason, to carry a present of powder and lead to the Montauk Indians, on Long Island, and explain that with it they were "not to offend or hurt Ninigret or any other Indians, but to defend themselves if they are invaded." . At the meeting of the commissioners in September, Massachusetts consented, though, as the result showed, not very heartily, to active hostilities against Ninigret. It was determined to raise an army of forty horsemen and two hundred and sixty footmen,


the quota of New Haven being thirty-one. Sixteen of these were immediately sent, with two seamen to carry them and their provisions by water, eight from New Haven, three from Milford, three from Stamford, two from Guilford, and two from Branford.

The Court also " agreed of provisions to be sent for a month as followeth : Six barrels of beer, five hundred pounds of bread, one barrel of beef, one barrel of pork, one hundred pounds of cheese, one barrel of pease, and three gallons of strong water; with every man two pounds of powder and shot answerable, for a stock; besides one pound'of powder and shot answerable, which every man is to carry with him ; with some coats, every man his knapsack and musket, and other fit arms for the service; six trays, six dishes, and one kettle; and for the chief officer for this colony in this service, the Court chose Lieut. Seeley, and Sergt. Jeffrey for sergeant ; and the other fifteen men are to be forthwith pressed, that they may be in readiness to attend further service if they be called to it."

The 13th of October being the time agreed upon for the meeting of the troops from the different colonies at the place of rendezvous, it was " ordered that upon the twelfth day of this month, being the fifth day of the week, shall be a day of humiliation to seek God for a blessing upon this enterprise in hand."

Contrary to the wishes of New Haven and of Connecticut, no fighting was done by the troops thus sent against the sachem of the Niantics. Willard, the com-mander-in-chief, receiving his appointment from Massachusetts, seems to have been as reluctant to engage in hostilities as the power which appointed him. The


commissioners, at their next meeting nearly a year afterward, censured him for his inactivity, and referred the matter to the General Courts of the several colonies. New Haven, in response, expressed the opinion that he had not obeyed his instructions, but declined to propose any penalty till the other colonies had acted. They were powerless to punish a citizen of Massachusetts whose conduct Massachusetts approved, even if .she had not, as Trumbull charges, predetermined it.

The failure of the expedition against the Niantics made it necessary to employ an armed vessel to cruise in the Sound, " to hinder Ninigret from going against the Long Island Indians." The vessel was commanded by John Youngs, son of the pastor at Southold (a plantation belonging to New Haven), and four men were sent with him by vote of the jurisdiction. This service continued about a year, and seems to have effectually prevented the hostile incursions of Ninigret into Long Island.

With this exception, there seems to have been no military service required by the New Haven colony from the time of the Niantic expedition to the union with Connecticut, other than the regular trainings in each plantation; though for several years immediately subsequent to that expedition, wars between Indian tribes excited frequent alarms among the English, and stimulated them to unusual diligence in military exercise.