"THE negotiation between the two colonies was thus in dead-lock, when, " at the close of a long sum­mer day, as the sabbath stillness in Boston was begin­ning, two ships of war-the Guinea, carrying thirty-six guns, and the Elias, carrying thirty - came to anchor off Long Wharf. They were the first vessels of the royal navy that had ever been seen in that harbor. Officers went on board, and brought back intelligence to the town, that the ships had sailed ten weeks before from England, in company with two others, - the Martin, of sixteen guns, and the William and Nicholas, of ten,-from which they had parted* a week or two before in bad weather; and that the fleet conveyed three or four hundred troops, and four persons charged with public business. These were Col. Richard Nicolls, Sir Robert Carr, Col. George Cartwright, and Mr. Samuel Maverick." * The other vessels had anchored at Portsmouth three days earlier.

The arrival of these royal commissioners brought to a speedy issue the controversy between Connecticut and New Haven. They were instructed to require the colonies to assist in reducing under English authority

1 Palfrey. 510

all the territory occupied by the Dutch, the king claim­ing it as of right belonging to the English and bestowing it on his brother the Duke of York. As the territory thus granted was to be bounded on the east by the Connecticut River, New Haven experienced a sudden change of heart toward Connecticut, preferring to sub­mit to her jurisdiction rather than be subjected to the rule of a man who was a royalist, a Romanist, and a Stuart.

Connecticut was also alarmed, or else feigned to be, at the arrival of the commissioners. As soon as possible she sent a delegation to New Haven to per­suade her loving friends there to come under the Win-throp charter in order to avoid a common danger. These delegates, one of whom had recently been in Boston, alleged, moreover, that the leading men of Massachusetts earnestly desired that Connecticut and New Haven should come to an agreement, as it had been ascertained that the commissioners had instruc­tions to take advantage of disputes between colonies as well as of every other expedient for reducing all New England under the immediate government of the king.

In less than three weeks after the arrival of the commissioners, Gov. Leete assembled his Court at New Haven.

" The governor acquainted them with the occasion of this Court, that there had Mr. Whiting and Lieut. Bull of Hartford been lately with most of the magistrates, and brought a letter from Mr. Wyllys to Mr. Jones; and they signified that Mr. Whiting being lately in the Bay, and having speech with many friends there, he was hastened away by them to communicate matters above at Connect!-


cut, and also to us, showing themselves very sensible of danger of detriment to the country by reason of any differences between the colonies, now the king's commissioners were come over; and they looked upon this difference of ours with Connecticut to be the greatest, and therefore they declared that they were sent to this purpose, and declared this to be the advice of the best part in the Bay, though they had no letter, that this difference be made up betwixt us, being very sensible of danger to all by this means, and therefore they judge this the best way for all our safety, to stand fofthe liberties of our patents, and so Connecticut and they would have us to join with them upon that account, for they conceive a great advantage given to the commissioners by our standing off. Now we told them, for our parts, we could do nothing in it our­selves, but after much debate and urging we signified to them thus much: that if Connecticut would come and assert their claim to us in the king's authority, and would secure what at any time they had propounded to us, and would engage to stand to uphold the liberties of their patent, we would call the General Court together that they may consider of it, and be ready to give them an answer, and said for our parts, we did not know but we might bow before it, if they assert it and make it good. They urged to have some­thing from us as grounds of certainty that we would so do, but we told them that we would not do so. Now the Court was desired to consider, of it, what answer should be given if they should so come. Much debate there was upon it, and something pleaded upon the danger of standing as now we are, if the king's commis­sioners come amongst us; much also was said by some against, and declared that they see no reason of such a motion, making that a question ttf be answered before we knew it would be put to us; also that there had not been a full summons to all the plantations for this General Court; also it was questioned whether the General Court, if it were full, had any power to deliver up the colony state without the consent of the whole body of freemen at least. But notwithstanding all that was said, it came to a vote as followeth: that if Connecticut do come down and assert their right to us by virtue of their charter, and require us in his Majes­ty's name to submit to their government, that then it be declared to them that we do submit, referring all arguments between us to the final issue of the commissioners of our confederates.


" The "vote passed in the affirmative; but after the vote Was passed there appeared some dissatisfaction, and there was further advice and consideration taken in the case, and much was said that it was necessary the freemen should be acquainted with it, and in the issue came to another vote, which was this: That if they of Connecticut come and make a claim upon us- in his Majesty's name and by virtue of their charter, then we shall sub­mit to them until the commissioners of the colonies do meet; and so the governor, the deputy-governor, and magistrates, or so many of them as can be got together, were appointed to give the answer to Connecticut men if they come."

At the annual meeting of the Commissioners of the United Colonies in September, Connecticut protested against the admission of Messrs. Leete and Jones as Commissioners for New Haven colony, "because it doth not appear that they are a colony, or have any power of government distinct from us, confirmed by regal authority." The dispute being thus brought before them, the representatives of Massachusetts and Plymouth declared "that as the "occasion thereof was acted without their cognizance, and the grounds not being fully known to them, they could, as to the right of the cause, add nothing to what was passed by the commissioners at their meeting in 1663: yet, consid­ering how much the honor of God as well as the weal of all the colonies, as themselves therein interested, are concerned in the issue, they heartily and affection­ately commended such a compliance between them, that the sad consequences which would inevitably follow upon their further contentions might be prevented."

" At a general court of the freemen of the jurisdiction held at New Haven, Sept. 14, 1664, the governor acquainted them with


the occasion of calling thein together; at this time, and that was something they had met withal lately at the meeting of the com­missioners at Hartford, as in the writings may appear, which writings that concerned us were all now read, with a letter also subscribed by Mr. Samuel Wyllys and Mr. John Allyn, directed to James Bishop, to be communicated to this Assembly. The gov­ernor further said that it was a season to advise and consider together in what state it is best for us to appear when the commis­sioners from England come to visit us, whether in the state we now are, or under a regal stamp (as they call it), in joining with Connecticut. There was much debate, and divers spake that to stand as God hath kept us hitherto is our best way; but some desired to understand the vote of the last General Court, so the secretary went home to fetch it, and in the mean space, while he was gone, the assembly was broken up, and no more done at this time."

The General Assembly of Connecticut met in Octo­ber, and passed the following order: -

" This Court desires and appoints Mr. Shearman and the secre­tary to go to New Haven, &c., and by order from this Court, in his Majesty's name, to require, all the inhabitants of New Haven, Milford, Branford, Guilford, and Stamford to submit to the gov­ernment here established by his Majesty's gracious grant to this colony, and to take their answer. And they are hereby authorized to declare all the present freemen of New Haven, Milford, Bran-ford, Guilford, and Stamford, that are qualified accorfling to law,' to be freemen of this corporation, so many of them as shall accept of the same and take the freemen's oath. And they are hereby authorized to make as many freemen as they shall by sufficient testimony find qualified according to order of court, in that respect, and to administer the oath of freedom to them.

" They are also to declare that this Court doth invest William Leete, Esquire, William Jones, Esquire, Mr. Gilbert, Mr. Fenn, Mr. Crane,' Mr. Treat, and Mr. Law, with magistratical power, to .assist in the government of those plantations and the people thereof, according to the laws of this corporation, or so many of their own


laws and orders as are not contradictory to the tenor of our charter, until May next; and if any of these above-named refuse to accept to govern the people as aforesaid, then Mr. Shearman and the secretary are hereby authorized to appoint some other fit persons in their room, and to administer an oath to them for the faithful execution of the trust committed to them."

For some reason Mr. Richards was desired to go in place of Mr. Shearman to Stamford, where, Mr. Law having been won over, they found no great difficulty in persuading the town to submit. The committee origin­ally appointed visited Milford on the I7th of November, where they issued a call for a meeting of- all house­holders, as follows : - •

" These are in his Majesty's name to will and require you forth­ with to warn all the inhabitants at your town of Milford, being householders, to meet at the meeting-house this day about one of the clock, to attend such occasions with Mr. Shearman and myself, as are given us in charge by the General Court of Connecticut; whereof fail not.

john allyn, Secretary!'' " To Joseph- Waters, to execute:'1 The people of Milford, assembling in response to this call, voted to submit to Connecticut. " No one person voted against it." On the 19th of the same month, Mr. Shearman and Secretary Allyn were present at a town-meeting in New Haven, where Mr. Jones, who at the election in May had been chosen deputy-governor, and was there­ fore moderator of the plantation court, " acquainted the town that the occasion of the meeting was that there were some gentlemen from Connecticut that had some­ thing to acquaint the town withal, and he thought the 515

business in general was to require our submission to Connecticut, with some other propositions. He further minded the town of the peace and unity that God had hitherto continued amongst us, and the many blessings both on the right hand and left that we enjoyed under this government; and also told the town that we are a people in combination with others, and therefore could not give a full answer without first acquainting the other plantations, and then that we ourselves were not a full meeting of the town, divers of the farms having not warning. But, the gentlemen being come in, Mr. Jones desired to see their commission. They declared that they should show it to persons deputed, but after, read it, and then declared what they had to say to the town. The persons were Mr. John Allyn and Mr. Samuel Shearman. These gentlemen urged to have the matter put to vote, but they were told that the town-meeting was not full. But Mr. Allyn said that if Mr. Shearman did consent, which he thought he would, he should take the boldness to put it to vote himself ; but his speech was disliked, and after, witnessed against, and they were desired to withdraw awhile, and the town would consider to give them an answer; and so they did, and the town considering of it came to this conclusion as their present answer by a general vote, only one dissenting, which answer follows their decla­ration. The gentlemen aforesaid being called in again, the answer was read to them. They desired a copy of it; which was granted, they leaving a copy of what they had declared, which they promisedj and is here inserted as followeth." The declaration of the Connecticut committee was


in accordance with their instructions. The answer of the New Haven town-meeting, though not preserved, was doubtless substantially what the moderator had already stated; viz., that submission to such a demand must come from the colony of New Haven, and not from its several plantations.

The committee visited also Branford and Guilford, where the answers they received to their requirement of submissipn were in accordance with that of New Haven.

Submission to Connecticut was now the manifest destiny of New Haven, and the only remaining ques­tion respected the mode. The royal commissioners had obliterated the Dutch power in America, and New Haven was included in the territory given to the Duke of York. A " distinct colony state " being out of the question, the best practicable condition was to become a part of Connecticut. The course of events had at last brought all but a very few to this conclusion. How­ever strongly they were attached to the peculiarities of their colony, including, as most important of all, its limitation of suffrage, and however deeply offended with the insult their colony had received from Connecticut, they saw that submission was a necessity. If there were a few who still desired " to stand as God hath kept us hitherto," they were, since the reduction of Ne,w Netherlands, so few that nothing could be accom­plished. All that the leading men now hoped-for was that the colony might die decently. Not consenting that the plantations should separately transfer alle­giance, they required that the General Court of the jurisdiction should assemble and vote its submission.


* If any thing was wanting to bring the last man to despair of maintaining a distinct colony state, it was a formal determination by the royal commissioners of the boundary between Connecticut and New York. If New Haven was in Connecticut, the distinct colony of New Haven was at an end; but the other alternative was worse.

Winthrop with several associates had been appointed by the General Assembly of Connecticut, at their ses­sion in October, to go to New York, " to congratulate his Majesty's Honorable Commissioners." They were empowered, " if an opportunity offer itself that they can issue the bounds between the Duke's patent and ours, so as in their judgment may be to the satisfaction of the Court, to attend the same." Winthrop had been present with the Commissioners, and rendered them important aid, in negotiating the surrender of New Amsterdam in the preceding August; but still further to prepare the way for an issue that would be to the satisfaction of the Court, an order had been passed " that Col. Nicolls and the rest of the Commissioners be presented with four hundred bushels of corn as a present from this colony."

The decision of the Commissioners was rendered on the thirtieth day of November. After assigning Long Island, which Connecticut claimed as one of the "adja­cent islands," mentioned in her charter, to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, they proceeded to declare " that the creek or river called Momoronock, which is reputed to be about twelve miles to the east of West Chester, and a line drawn from the east point or side, where the fresh water falls into the salt at high-water 5l8

mark, north-north-west, to the line of the Massachu­setts, be the western bounds of the said colony of Con­necticut ; and all plantations lying westward of that creek and line so drawn to be under his Royal High-ness's government, and all plantations lying eastward of that creek and line to be under the government of Connecticut."

Thirteen days after this authoritative determination of the western boundary of Connecticut, the Jurisdic­tion of New Haven held its last general court. " The freemen of New Haven, Guilford, Branford, and part of Milford, and as many of the inhabitants as were pleased to come," assembled to put an end. to their distinct colony state, by submission to Connecticut.

"The governor acquainted them with the occasion of calling them together; and that is, some of Connecticut gentlemen having made demand of our submission to their government, in his Majesty's name, the answers of these three towns were with prom­ise of further answer when they should consider of the matter together; and therefore to set their thoughts a-work about it, something was propounded to them and left with them to consider of till the morning.

" In the morning, the assembly being come together, the gov­ernor propounded to know what was the issue of their thoughts in the business left with them. After some debate, the answer was drawn up in writing, and read, and after serious consideration put to vote, and so was concluded with universal consent, not any one opposing.

" The vote of the freemen and other inhabitants of the colony met together at New Haven, the i$th of December, '64, in answer to what Mr. John Allyn and Mr. Samuel Shearman declared in our several towns in November last as followeth: -

" I. First that by this act -or vote we be not understood to justify Connecticut's former actings, nor any thing disorderly done by our own people upon such accounts.


"2. That by it we be not apprehended to have any hand in breaking or dissolving- the confederation.

" Yet in testimony of our loyalty to the king's Majesty, when an authentic copy of the determination of his Commissioners is published to be recorded with us, if thereby it shall appear to our committee that we are by his Majesty's authority now put under Connecticut patent, we shall submit, as from a necessity brought upon us by their means of Connecticut aforesaid, but with a salvo jure of our former right and claim, as a people who have not yet been heard in point of plea."

A committee having been appointed for consummat­ing matters with Connecticut, and the following letter having been read and approved, it was sent to the authorities of Connecticut with the aforesaid vote.

" honored gentlemen,- We having been silent hitherto as to the making of any grievance known unto the king's commis­sioners, notwithstanding what may be with us of such nature from the several transactions that have been amongst us, are desirous so to continue the managing of these affairs in ways consistent with the ancient confederation of the United Colonies, choosing rather to suffer than to begin any motion hazardful to New Eng­land settlements. In pursuance whereof (according to our prom­ise to your gentlemen sent lately to demand our submission, though in a divided if not dividing way, within our towns severally seeking to bring us under the government by yourselves already settled, wherein we have had no hand to settle the same, and before you had cleared to our conviction the certain limits of your charter, which may justly increase the scruple of too much haste in that and former actings upon us), the generality of our undivided people have orderly met this I3th of December, 1664, and by the vote enclosed have prepared for this answer, to be given, of our submission, which being done by us, then for the accommodating of matters betwixt us in amicable wise, by a committee empowered to issue with you on their behalf and in the behalf of all con­cerned, according to instructions given to the said committee. We never did nor ever do intend to damnify your moral rights or


just privilege, consistent with our like honest enjoyment, and we would hope that you have no further scope towards us, not" to violate our covenant interest, but to accommodate us with that we shall desire and the patent bear, as hath been often said you would do. And surely you have the more reason to be full with us herein, seeing that your success for patent bounds with those gentlemen now obtained, seems to be debtor to our silence before them, whenas you thus by single application and audience issued that matter. You thus performing to satisfaction, we may still rest silent, and according to profession by a studious and cordial endeavor with us to advance the interest of Christ in this wilder­ness and by the Lord's blessing thereupon, love and union be­tween us may be greatly confirmed and all our comforts enlarged; which is the earnest prayer of, gentlemen, your loving friends and neighbors,

" The Committee appointed by the freemen and inhabitants of New Haven colony now assembled.

" W james bishop, Secretary. " new haven, Dec. 14, 1664."

The submission of New Haven was an unqualified triumph for Connecticut. There had been a time when she would have modified the qualifications for suffrage, and made them as nearly conformable to those in New Haven as the home government would allow. The qualifications she had proposed to New Haven in the preceding year are almost exactly what Massachu­setts adopted when the royal commissioners demanded, in the king's name, -that church-membership should not be insisted on. At that time, she seemed willing to permit New Haven to have a court in which magis-trafes might, without a jury, try and determine causes. She even seemed willing to exempt the churches of New Haven County from that Erastian control, which, in the session of the General Assembly when Mr.


Shearman and Secretary Allyn were appointed to de­mand the submission of New Haven, commended "to the ministers and churches in this colony to consider whether, it be not their duty to entertain all such per­sons who are of an honest and godly conversation, having a competency of knowledge in the principles of religion, and shall desire to join with them in church fellowship by an explicit covenant; and that they have their children baptized; and that all the children of the church be accepted and accounted real members of the church, and that the church exercise a due Chris­tian care and watch over them,- and that when they are grown up, being examined by the officers in the presence of the church, it appears in the judgment of charity they are duly qualified to participate in that great ordinance of the Lord's Supper, by their being able to examine themselves and discern the Lord's body, such persons be admitted to full communion. The Court desires that the several officers of the respective churches would be pleased to consider whether it be not the duty of the Court to order the churches to practise according to the premises, if they do not practise without such an order."

But New Haven, instead of securing these conces­sions by capitulating when they were offered, had obsti­nately refused, and had now submitted without any definite assurance of peculiar privileges. Plainly, they were expecting that their loving friends would accom­modate them with every thing they might " desire and the patent bear." Their letter of submission mentions with other matters, a committee they had appointed to communicate their desires, and alleges that the silence


of New Haven when Connecticut prosecuted her claim before the royal commissioners was a reason why Con­necticut should be magnanimous in her concessions. How bitter must have been the disappointment at New Haven, when Connecticut, in response to the letter of submission, alluded to every topic it contained except the appointment of the committee " for the accommo­dating of matters betwixt us in amicable wise." New Haven had unconditionally surrendered.

The response of Connecticut to the letter of submis­sion was as follows : -

" hartford, Dec. 21, 1664.

" honored gentlemen, - We have received yours, dated the I4th of this instant, signed by James Bishop, &c., wherein you are pleased to mention your silence hitherto, as to the making any grievance known to his Majesty's commissioners, notwithstanding what may be with you, &c. We can say the same, though we had fair opportunities to present any thing of that nature. As for your desire to manage affairs consistent with the Confederation, the present motion will (we hope) upon a candid review not |ppear any way dissonant therefrom, for besides the provision made in one of the Articles of Confederation for two colonies uniting in one, there was special provision, as you well know, made at the last session of the commissioners, to that purpose, conjoined with pathetical advice and counsel to an amicable union. Our too much forward­ness with New Haven, &c., is not so clear, seeing those planta­tions you inhabit are much about the centre of our patent, which our charter limits, as also the enclosed determination of his Majes­ty's honorable commissioners, will to your conviction be apparent. That our success for patent bounds with the king's commissioners is debtor to your silence, seems to us strange, when your non-com­pliance "was so abundantly known to those gentlemen; yea, the news of your motions when Mr. John Allyn was last with you, was at New York before our governor's departure thence, notwith­standing your silence, and yet so good an issue obtained. We desire such reflections may be buried in perpetual silence, which


only yourselves necessitating thereunto shall revive them, being willing to pursue truth and peace as much as may be with all men, especially with our dear brethren in the fellowship of (he gospel, and fellow-members of the same civil corporation, accommodated with so many choice privileges, which we are willing, after all is prepared to your hands, to confer upon you equal with ourselves; which we wish may at last produce the long-desired effect of your free and cordial closure with us, not attributing any necessity im­posed by us further than the situation of those plantations in the heart of our colony, and therein the peace of posterity in these parts of the country is necessarily included, and that after so long liberty to present your plea where you have seen meet. Gentle­men, we desire a full answer as speedily as may, be, whether those lately empowered, accept to govern according to their commission; if not, other meet persons to govern, may by us be empowered in their room. Thus desiring the Lord to unite our hearts and spirits in ways well pleasing in his sight, "Which is the prayer of your very loving friends, " the council of the colony of connecticut. " Signed by their order by me, john allyn, Secretary." New Haven made but one more effort to obtain con­cessions. The effort was neither vigorous nor effectual. The following letter ended its resistance to the will of Connecticut. "new haven, Jan. 5, 1665. "honored gentlemen, - Whereas, by yours, dated Dec. 21, 1664, you please to say that you did the same as we in not making any grievance known, to the commissioners, &c.; unto that may be returned that you had not the same cause so to do, from any pre­tence of injury by our intermeddling with your colony or covenant interest: unto which we refer that passage. For our expressing desires to manage all our matters in consistency with the Confed­eration, we hope you will not blame us; how dissonant or con­sonant your actings with us 'have been, we leave to the confederates to judge, as their records may show. That article which allows ,two colonies to join, doth also with others assert the justness of 524

each colony's distinct right until joined to mutual satisfaction, and the provision made in such case the last session we gainsay not, when the union is so completed, and a new settlement of the con­federation by the respective general courts accomplished. Their pathetical advice and counsel for an amicable union we wish may be so attended; in order whereunto we gave you notice of a com­mittee prepared to treat with you for such an accommodation, unto which you give us no answer, but instead thereof, send forth your edict from authority upon us before our conviction for submis­sion was declared to you. The argument from our intermixt situa" tion is the same now as it was before our confederating and ever since, and affords no more ground now to disannul the covenant Jhan before. We might marvel at your strange why we should think your success should be debtor to our silence, and that be­cause the news of our non-compliance was with the commissioners; • as if the mere news of such a thing contained the strength of all we had to say or plead. Gentlemen, We entreat you to consider that there is more in it than so, yea, that still we have to allege things of weight, and know where and how, if we chose not rather to abate and suffer, than by striving, to hazard the hurting your­selves or the common cause. We scope not at reflections, but conviction and conscience-satisfaction, that so brethren in the fel­lowship of the gospel might come to a cordial and regular closure, and so walk together in love and peace to advance Christ's interest among them, which is all our design; but how those high and holy ends are like so to be promoved between us without a treaty for accommodation, we have cause to doubt, yet that we may not fail in the least to perform whatever we have said, we now signify, that having seen the copy of his Majesty's commissioners' determination (deciding the bounds betwixt his highness the Duke of York, and Connecticut's charter), we do declare submission thereunto accord­ing to the true intent ef our vote, unto which we refer you. As to that part of yours concerning our magistrates' and officers' accept-ance, their answer is, that they having been chosen by the people here to such trust, and sworn thereunto for the year ensuing, and until new be orderly chosen, and being again desired to continue that trust, they shall go on in due observance thereof, according to the declaration left with us by Mr. John Allyn and Mr. Samuel


Shearman, bearing date Nov. 19, 1664, in hope to find that in a loving treaty for accommodating matters to the ends professed by you, unto which our committee stands ready to attend, upon notice from you, truth and peace maybe maintained. So shall we not give you further trouble, but remain, gentlemen, your very loving friends and neighbors,

" The committee appointed by the freemen and inhabitants of New Haven Colony, signed their order, me, " james bishop, Secretary."

This reiterated appeal for i "loving treaty" brought forth no response, and the people of the late colony of New Haven found that they were not to be allowed to retain any of the peculiarities they had so highly prized under the old jurisdiction. Deputies from the plantation of New Haven appeared and sat in the Gen­eral Assembly of Connecticut in the following April. An act of indemnity was at that time passed as follows: " This Court doth hereby declare that all former actings that have passed by the former power at New Haven, so far as they have concerned this colony (whilst they stood as a distinct colony), though they in their own nature have seemed uncomfortable to us, yet they are hereby buried in perpetual oblivion, never to be called to account." At the election in May four gentlemen who had been magistrates under the New Haven juris­diction were appointed magistrates of Connecticut.

A very large majority of the people formerly under 'the jurisdiction of New Haven soon became satisfied with their new relation. Branford, however, was an exception. In the words of Trumbull, "Mr. Pierson and almost his whole church and congregation were so displeased tha.t they soon removed into Newark in


New Jersey. They carried off the records of the church and town, and, after the latter had been settled about five and twenty years, left it almost without inhabit­ants. For more than twenty years from that time there was not a church formed in the town. People from various parts of the colony gradually moved into it, and purchased the lands of the first planters, so that in about twenty years it became resettled. In 1685 it was re-invested with town privileges."

Most of all, Davenport* who, 'on the other side of the sea, had devised the peculiar constitution of New Haven, who had seen the establishment of successive plantations according to the pattern he had set, and the combination of them under a colonial government, was distressed at the ruin of his plans arid his hopes. In April, 1666, Winthrop wrote requesting him to preach the election sermon in May, and suggesting that he would have been asked to preach the preceding year, but that the union was not then complete. Daven­port, who had just entered his seventieth year, and was suffering with malaria, writes of his " unfitness for such a journey," mentions the intention of his colleague to visit Boston as a reason why he himself must remain at home, and adds, " I have sundry other weighty rea­sons whereby I am strongly and necessarily hindered from that service, which may more conveniently be given by word of mouth to your honored self, than expressed by writing." Retaining the letter in his hand two days, he writes in a postscript: "The rea­son which it pleased you to give why I was not for­merly desired to preach at the election, holdeth as 'strong against my being invited thereunto now. For


we are not yet fully joined, by the Court's refusal of our freemen .to vote in the last election, when they came thither to that end, in obedience to their absolute summons, and about twenty of ours were sent home as repudiated after they had suffered the difficulties and hazards of an uncomfortable and unsafe journey in that wet season."' Writing his reply the same day he received Winthrop's invitation, he ruled his spirit; but, after two days of musing, he gives vent to his disappointment in the complaint that the free­men of New Haven were not, as such, received and treated under the expected treaty of accommodation, as freemen of Connecticut, A year later he writes to Winthrop with something of his former cordiality and abandon, as if time had softened his resentment. But he never recovered from the disappointment which fell upon him like a blow at the extinction of the little sov­ereignty whose foundations he had laid. New Haven, as Palfrey rightly says, "ceased to be attractive to him. It was rather the monument of a great defeat and sorrow." He speaks in a letter to a friend in Massachusetts of "Christ's interest in New Haven Colony as miserably lost." In this state of mind he received an invitation to the pastorate of the First Church in Boston, there to champion the cause of ortho­doxy against the half-way covenant. Contrary to the wishes of his church and congregation, he determined to accept the invitation. Mr. John Hull of Boston

1 These freemen of New Haven Colony doubtless presented themselves as voters in response to a public summons directed to freemen of Con­necticut. As they had not taken the oath of allegiance to that colony, they were repudiated.


writes in his diary, under date of May 2, 1668: "At three or four in the afternoon came Mr. John Daven­port to town, with his wife, son, and son's family, and were met by many of. the town. A great shower of extraordinary drops of rain fell as they entered the town; but Mr. Davenport and his wife were sheltered in a coach of Mr. Searl, who went to meet them." Mr. Davenport's ministry in Boston was of short duration. He died in less than two years after the date given above. His removal from New Haven doubtless helped to obliterate the bitter feelings produced by the controversy between Connecticut and New Haven. The union of the two colonies was in itself so desir­able, that resentment against what was wrong in the ' means of accomplishing it yielded to, the stronger feeling of satisfaction with the result. After two cen­turies, New Haven scarcely remembers that she was once a distinct colony.