W E have already seen that immediately after the town-plot was laid out, a house-lot was assigned to every free planter; by which appellation a person who had invested in the common property of the plantation was distinguished from other inhabitants. These house-lots were so large as to require, in most cases, all the labor their owners could give to husbandry during the first two summers. The few who needed more land for cultivation were allowed to plant in "the neck" between Mill River and Quinnipiac River. So desirable did the proprietors regard the increase of population, that they not only made the quantity of land thus assigned to a free planter to depend partly on the number of persons in his family, but also freely assigned a small lot on the outside of the town-plot to every householder in the plantation who desired to become a permanent resident, but was unable to purchase a share in the common property. The number of householders thus gratuitously supplied with house-lots was in the beginning thirty-two. Others were afterward added.

In January, 1640, arrangements were made for the division of the neck, the salt meadows, and a tract which, extending in every direction about a mile from


the town, was called the two-miles-square. The division was so arranged that every free planter should have some land in the neck, some in the meadows, and some in the upland of the two-miles-square.

Out of the last-mentioned tract certain reservations were made; and the remainder was divided into nine parts, one for each of the nine quarters into which the town was divided, each quarter in the town having its out-lands as nearly as possible contiguous to itself. In consequence of this arrangement, these sections of out-lands were also called quarters ; and, there being more occasion for using the term in connection with the out-lands than the home-lots, it came by degrees to be applied almost exclusively to them in later records.

Commencing with the east-centre, or Mr. Davenport's quarter, let us connect the nine quarters with out-lands assigned to them respectively in the first division. The out-lands of Mr. Davenport's quarter were bounded by Chapel Street, Grand Street, a line about three hundred feet east of State Street, and Mill River. Mr. Baton's quarter was bounded by Grand Street, State Street (or, as it was called, Neck Lane), a line in continuation of that just mentioned, described as three hundred feet east of State Street, and the meadows bordering on Mill River. Mr. Newman's quarter was bounded by Neck Lane, Mill Lane (as Orange Street was called), Grove Street, and the meadows bordering on Mill River. Mr. Tench's quarter, lying between Mill Lane and Prospect Street, extended outward from Grove Street so far as was necessary to furnish every planter in the quarter with his proportionate allotment.

It will be seen, that, while Mr. Davenport's quarter


had their out-lands near .their home-lots, Mr. Tench's cut-land quarter only touched his town quarter, and that, if the out-lands of the next quarter had been assigned so as to be contiguous to those of Mr. Tench's quarter, they would have been far distant from the home-lots to which they belonged. This difficulty was solved by the sequestration of land lying west of Prospect Street, for common use. This tract included the cow-pasture, the ox-pasture, the Beaver-pond meadows, and a field farther west than these, which remained unfenced, and was called the Common.

By means of this sequestration, the out-lands of the Yorkshire quarter were so assigned that they were immediately contiguous to the house-lots to which they belonged, lying between the common land on the north and Chapel Street on the south, and extending from York Street westward to or beyond West River. The Herefordshire quarter, lying between Chapel Street and Oak Street, extended from York Street to or beyond the river. Mr. Gregson's out-land quarter lay south of the Herefordshire quarter, and, was bounded on the east by the road to Milford, which passed through Broad Street and Davenport Avenue, as they are now named. Next was the suburbs quarter, between Milford Road and Washington Street. Last in our enumeration, Mr. Lamberton's quarter covered all the land between Washington Street and the harbor.

There still remained within the two-miles-square four reservations besides those which have been mentioned: viz., one called the market-place; another containing so much of the land bordering on the West Creek as had not been allotted to persons who were not proprietors;


a third containing the land bordering on the East Creek; a fourth called Oyster-shell Field, east of the East Creek reservation, and comprehended between Chapel Street and a line about three hundred feet north of East Water Street. The last-named tract was leased from year to year to persons who desired to cultivate more land than they owned. The reserved land on both sides of the two creeks was either allotted in small parcels to persons who were not proprietors, or was reserved to be so disposed of when there should "tre occasion.

In the first division of out-lands, no provision was made for those who had been gratuitously supplied with house-lots; but in the second division the rule was adopted to allot "six acres for a single person, eight acres for a man and his wife, with an acre added for every child they have at present." If they accepted these out-lands, they were to pay taxes on them as other planters did, at the rate of twopence per acre; and " if any of them, satisfied with their trades, or not liking the place of their allotment,'shall refuse or neglect to take up the land, yet every one admitted to be a planter shall pay twelvepence a year to the treasurer toward public charges."

The out-lands thus assigned to each of the nine quarters were subdivided according to the same rule of division which had obtained in the division of the town quarters; every planter having " a proportion of land according to the proportion of estate which he hath given in, and number of heads in his family." Five acres were allowed for every hundred pounds of estate, and an equal quantity for every two heads. These sub-


divisions, however, were not separated one from another by division fences; but eah quarter was enclosed by a common fence, for his proportion of which every proprietor was responsible. As might be expected, much legislation and frequent fines were necessary to keep these fences sufficient for the protection of the enclosures from the forays of hungry cattle.

The meadows were sufficient to afford five acres for every hundred pounds of estate and half an acre for every head, and an addition in quantity to some allotments where the quality' was inferior. The neck was divided so as to give one acre for every hundred pounds, and half an acre for every head.

Some months after this division was ordered, and, as it would seem, before it was consummated, a second allotment was made, disposing of those portions of the common property which lay outside of the two-miles-square. At a general court held the 23d of October, 1640, it was "ordered that in the second division every planter in the town shall have for every hundred pounds of estate given in, twenty acres of upland, and for every head,two acres and a half."

The sequestered lands were held as common property for many years, but were ultimately divided, one portion after another, till, with some unimportant exceptions, only the market-place was held in common. After the second division of lands, and probably in fulfilment of an order passed at the general court mentioned above, that " all the upland in the first division, with all the meadows in the plantation, shall pay fourpence an acre yearly; and all the land in the second division shall pay twopence an acre yearly, at two several days of payment,


viz., the one in April, and the other in October, to raise a common stock or public treasury," the following schedule was prepared, exhibiting the name of every proprietor, the number of persons in his family, the amount of his estate, and the number of acres belonging to him in each of four classes of land; viz., the first division of upland, the neck, the meadows, and the second division of upland. The eighth and last column shows the amount of his annual tax. The schedule, though prepared before April, 1641, is found in the record-book amid the records of 1643. It is not easy to determine whether it was copied into the record-book in 1643, after some changes had been made corresponding with changes of title ; or was recorded when first prepared, the secretary reserving for his report of the court's proceedings the thirty pages which precede it.1

This schedule furnishes important aid in determining who were proprietors of the town in the first years of its history, the social importance of each so far as the measure of his wealth determined it, and, when studied in connection with the land-records of the town, the location of his house-lot. The schedule disposes the proprietors into eleven groups; eight of which occupied the eight squares surrounding the market-place; another group, consisting of only four, had their dwellings on East Water Street, fronting the harbor; the remaining two inhabited the two blocks of land of irregular shape, called suburbs.

1 " Mr. Crane resigned Mr. Hickock's lot into the town's hand," Sept. 30, 1641; yet the lot stands in Mr. Hickock's name. There is so much probability that the schedule was recorded before the collection of the rate due in April, 1641, that it will be designated as the schedule of 1641.


Commencing with this distribution of the proprietors into groups, and studying the land-records of the town, one may assign to almost every proprietor his house-lot in respect of location and, approximately, of measure. The map opposite the title-page was drawn with these 112 HISTORY OF NEW HAVEN COLONY. aids.1 It locates the house-lots of all the proprietors except eleven. Of the thirty-two non-proprietors, seven had " small lots " given them on East Water Street, east of the lots of the four proprietors who lived on that street, and twenty-five were accommodated between George Street and the West Creek.

While the division of lands was in progress, the name of the plantation^was changed, by order of a general court held on the first day of September, 1640, from Quin-nipiac to New Haven. There is no reason for believing that any of the planters came from the port of that name on the southern shore of England, and the record gives no clew to the reasons which influenced the court in

1 The author of this history is alone responsible for the map; but he thankfully acknowledges his obligation to Henry White, Esq., for the use of manuscript volumes which trace the land-titles from the original to the present proprietors, and for assistance in the solution of difficult problems. He feels some degree of confidence in regard to all the eleven groups, except that occupying the suburb on the west side of West Creek. Several transfers of title occurred in this group before the recording of alienations was imperative, and the shape of the quarter has been so changed that its original boundaries have not been ascertained. Only three, therefore, of the proprietors, in this quarter have been located on the map; namely, William Ives, George Smith, and Widow Sherman.

The dotted lines on the map represent fences of uncertain location. A street, cut from the corner of George and York Streets through to Oak Street, would be in line with Oak Street, and I am credibly informed that there was such a street; but how Mr. Gregson's quarter was bounded, on the side toward the town, I cannot determine. The dotted lines on one side of the suburb lying west of West Creek are nearly coincident with the lines of Lafayette Street; but I am told that Lafayette is a modern street. There must have been an ancient lane nearly coincident with it, since one of the lots is described in 1679 as bounded east by the street (Hill Street), and " west by the way that goeth down to Jonathan Lamson's lot on the bankside."


naming their plantation. In dropping the aboriginal designation, and adopting one familiar to Englishmen, they followed the custom of their time. They did it perhaps partly for their own pleasure, but more for the gratification of friends ; for in the course of two years, use must have greatly diminished the uncouthness, to English ears, of the Indian name. A letter of Davenport to his early friend and pktron, Lady Vere, is extant, in which he speaks of the arrival, in the summer of 1639, f the first ship from England; and in it he says, " The sight of the harbor did so please the captain of the ship, and all the passengers, that he called it the Fair Haven." Perhaps this attempt of the English captain to give an English name occasioned the formal action of the court a twelvemonth afterward, which is thus recorded, "This town now called New Haven." Perhaps, also, this ship which first cast anchor in the harbor of New Haven, bringing passengers from Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, had weighed anchor in the port of that name on the coast of Sussex.