THE PERSONNEL OF THE PLANTATION.
Commencing with the north-east quarter, we find a large part of it owned by Gov. Eaton and his relations. The governor's homestead was on Elm Street, about equidistant from the corners of the square. Here he lived with his wife, his mother, his four children, and the two sons of his wife by her first husband. In later years Mrs. Hopkins, wife of Edward Hopkins, the governor of Hartford, having become incurably insane, spent much time in the family under the care of her mother.1 Several young persons of both sexes, wards
1 Winthrop writes in his diary April 13, 1645: " Mr. Hopkins, the governor of Hartford upon Connecticut, came to Boston and brought his wife with him (a godly young woman and of special parts), who was fallen into a sad infirmity, the loss of her understanding and reason, which had been growing upon her divers years, by occasion of her giving herself wholly to reading and writing, and had written many books. Her husband, being very loving and tender of her, was loath to grieve her; but he saw his error when it was too late. For if she had attended her household affairs and such things as belong to women, and not gone out of her way and calling to meddle in such things as are proper for men, whose minds are stronger, &c., she had kept her wits, and might have improved them usefully and honorably in the place God had set her."
of Eaton, also found a home under his roof. In addition, there was, as appears from the.records, a numerous retinue of servants for the work of the house and of the field. Mather says that the family sometimes consisted of not less than thirty persons. The New Haven Colony Historical Society has in its possession a portrait said to have belonged to the Eaton family. It was painted in 1635, and in the twenty-fifth year of the age of the lady whom it pictures. In one corner is a coat of arms, which, in connection with the dates, may determine whether it represents Mrs. Hopkins, the daughter of Mrs. Eaton by her first husband, or Mary, the daughter of Gov. Eaton by his
first wife, or some other lady. At present the question is in suspense. The principal apartment of the dwelling-house, denominated, as in the mother-country, the hall, was the first to be entered. It was sufficiently spacious to accommodate the whole family when assembled at meals and at prayers. It contained, according to the inventory taken after the governor's decease, "a drawing-table," "a round table," "green cushions," "a great chair with needlework," "high chairs," "high stools," "low chairs," "low stools," "Turkey carpets," "high wine stools," and "great brass andirons." "The parlor," probably adjoining the hall and having windows opening upon the street, served as a withdraw-ing-room, to which the elder members of the family and their guests retired from the crowd and bustle of the hall. But, according to the fashion of the time, the parlor contained the furniture of a bedroom, and was occasionally used as the sleeping-apartment of a guest. Mather, speaking of Eaton's manner of life, says that " it was his custom when he first rose in the morning to repair unto his study; " and again, that, "being a great reader, all the time he could spare from company and business, he commonly spent in his beloved study." There is no mention in the inventory of " the study," but perhaps the apartment referred to by Mather was described by the appraisers as "the counting-house," the two names denoting that it was used both as a library and as an office. If these three rooms filled the front of the mansion, the reader may locate behind them at his own discretion the winter-kitchen, the summer-kitchen, the buttery, the
pantry, - offices necessarily implied, even if not mentioned as connected with an extensive homestead of the seventeenth century, - and then add the brew-house and the warehouse, both mentioned in the inventory. Of the sleeping-apartments in the second story, the green chamber, so called from the color of its drapery, was chief in the expensiveness and elegance of its furniture, and presumably in its size, situation, and wainscoting. The walls of the blue chamber were hung with tapestry, but the green drapery was of better quality than the blue. The blue chamber had a Turkey carpet, but the appraisers set a higher value on the carpet in the green chamber. All the other sleeping-rooms were furnished each with a feather-bed of greater or less value, but the green chamber had a bed of down. In this chamber, probably, was displayed the silver basin and ewer, double gilt, and curiously wrought with gold, which the Fellowship of Eastland Merchants had presented to Mrs. Eaton, in acknowledgment of her husband's services as their agent in the countries about the Baltic. The appraisers valued it at forty pounds sterling, but did not put it in the inventory because Mrs. Eaton claimed it as "her proper estate." There was in the house, in addition to the bowl and ewer, plate to the value of one hundred and seven pounds, eleven shillings, sterling. Taking into consideration all that we know of the house and furniture, we must conclude with Hubbard, that the governor "maintained a port in some measure answerable to his place." Samuel Eaton, who owned and occupied the land between his brother's premises and State Street, ob-
taining in 1640 from the court a grant of Totoket, "for such friends as he shall bring over from old England, and upon such terms as shall be agreed betwixt himself and the committee chosen to that purpose," sailed for the mother-country, to return with a band of colonists and settle a new plantation at Branford. But he found •his friends well pleased with the new condition of affairs in England, and unwilling to emigrate. He himself, preferring to remain in his native land, sent a power-of-attorney to his brother; by whom the corner-lot, which had been Samuel Baton's, was sold in 1649 to Francis Newman. It afterward became the property of James Bishop, and remained in his family more than two centuries. Edward Hopkins, though he settled in Hartford, was one of the first proprietors of Quinnipiac. At a court held the third day of November, 1639, the town ordered, "that Mr. Hopkins shall have two hogsheads of lime for his present use, and as much more as will finish his house as he now intends it, he thinking that two hogsheads more will serve." One can scarcely doubt that Mr. Hopkins's house was in the same quarter with that of his beloved father-in-law; but the tax-schedule of 1641 does not contain his name, and there is no existing record of the alienation of the house and land. The order concerning the lime seems to imply that he had made some change in his intentions, and we may infer that his determination to settle in Hartford was formed after the house was begun and before it was finished. Having spent some time in Connecticut, while his fellow-passengers in the Hector were sojourning in Massachusetts, he did not rejoin them when they re-
moved to Quinnipiac, though he retained his interest as a joint-proprietor in their plantation. Becoming gradually adherent to Connecticut, where he sat as a deputy in the General Court as early as March, 1638, and was chosen to assist in the magistracy in April, 1639, he probably sold his estate in New Haven before the tax-schedule of 1641 was written; but which of the proprietors in the governor's quarter succeeded him, cannot be determined. Though removed from daily intercourse with Eaton, he cherished such love for him to the end of life, that, as he lay on his death-bed in England, he said, "How often have I pleased myself with thoughts of a joyful meeting with my father Eaton! I remember with what pleasure he would come down the street, that he might meet me when I came from Hartford to New Haven; but with how much greater pleasure shall we shortly meet one another in heaven !" In his will, after providing for his " poor distressed wife," and giving to friends tokens of his affection, he bequeathed his estate to trustees for the promotion of liberal education in New England. The Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven owes its existence to this bequest. Although we cannot determine with certainty where Mr. Hopkins's house was situated, it is a plausible conjecture that he alienated his land and buildings to William Tuttle, who, in 1641, owned the lot on the corner of Grove and State Streets. Mr. Tuttle, who came over in the Planter in 1635, was, in April, 1639, still a resident of Boston, as appears from the baptism of one of his children there on the seventh day of that month ; but some time in the same year he removed to'
Quinnipiac, for he signed the fundamental agreement before it was copied into the record-book. Although not a member of the court, he was active and influential in public affairs. " His daughter Elizabeth became the wife of Richard Edwards of Hartford, and the mother of Rev. Timothy Edwards of East Windsor, who numbered among his children the greatest of American metaphysicians and ten daughters, "every one of which has been said to be six feet tall, making sixty feet of daughters, all of them strong in mind." ' The lot on Grove Street, adjoining Mr. Tuttle's, belonged to the mother of Theophilus and Samuel Eaton; but, as she was an inmate of the governor's family, probably no buildings were erected while it was in her possession. She sold it, in 1646, to Richard Perry. West of Mrs. Eaton's land was that of David Yale, who, when the schedule of 1641 was written, was still unmarried. In 1645 he purchased a house in Boston, where his second child was born the same year. While residing in Bostdn he distinguished himself as a friend of the Church of England, joining with a few others in a petition for liberty to use its liturgy. A few years later he returned to the mother-country, where he remained to the end of life. To his care his still insane sister was committed by Gov.-Hopkins, when he died in 1657. He was the father'of Elihu Yale, for whom Yale College was named. Ezekiel Cheever, who lived at the corner of Grove and Church Streets, came in the Hector from London, where he was born, Jan. 25, 1615. He opened a school in his own house a few months after he arrived
1 Semi-centennial sermon of Rev. Joab Brace, D.D.
at Quinnipiac with the main company of planters, and was thenceforth the schoolmaster of the plantation, receiving for some time a yearly stipend of twenty pounds, which, in 1644, was increased to thirty pounds. He was one of the twelve chosen for the foundation work of the Church and State, and, though never ordained to the ministry, occasionally preached. Both in the field of education and in the field of theology he was an author, having written "A Short Introduction to the Latin Tongue," which he called an "Accidence," and a book on the millennium, under the title " Scripture Prophecies Explained." He was chosen a member of the Court for the plantation at its first session, when it was instituted by the seven appointed for that purpose, and, in 1646, was one of the deputies to the General Court of the Jurisdiction. Dissenting from the judgment of the church and its elders, in respect to some cases'of discipline, he commented on their action with such severity that he was himself censured in 1649.* Soon after this, and perhaps on account of it, he removed from New Haven, and, according to Mather, "died in Boston, August 21, 1708, in the ninety-fourth year of his age, after he had been a skilful, painful, faithful schoolmaster for seventy years." President Stiles mentions two aged clergymen of his acquaintance who had been pupils of Cheever, one of whom said, "that he wore a long white beard, terminating in a point; that, when he stroked his beard to the point, it was a sign to the boys to stand clear."
Nathanael Turner, whose home-lot was on Church
' In Conn. Hist. Soc., Coll. I., may be seen the "Trial of Ezekiel Cheever, before the Church at New Haven."
Street, next south of Mr. Cheever's, came from England with Winthrop in 1630, and was one of the most considerable citizens of Lynn, representing the town in the first General Court of Massachusetts. In January, 1637, his house was destroyed by fire, "with all that was in it save the persons;" and this event happening the same year that tidings came of " that famous place called Quinnipiac," with " a fair river, fit for harboring of ships," and "rich and goodly meadows," may have occasioned his removal from Lynn. Having had military experience as an officer in the Pequot war, he was from the beginning intrusted with " the command and ordering of all martial affairs" in the new plantation. To facilitate the performance of this trust it was ordered by the Court " that Capt. Turner shall have his lot of meadow and upland where he shall choose it for his own convenience, that he may attend the service of the town which his place requires." He accordingly located a farm about three miles from the market-place, between East Rock and Quinnipiac River. After his death, if not before, his family resided at the farm. He was lost at sea in " the great ship " which sailed from New Haven in January, 1646.
Richard Perry, the only proprietor in Mr. Baton's quarter who has not been mentioned, lived at the corner of Church and Elm Streets. Having married Mary, the daughter of Richard Malbon, in the old country, he accompanied his father-in-law from London to New Haven. He took an active part in the public affairs of the plantation, and in 1646, when Fugill, the secretary of the court, had fallen into disgrace, was chosen to succeed him in that office. He sold his house to
Thomas Kimberly in 1649, and after that date his name does not occur in the records. Passing from the north-east square to the east-centre square, we find Mr. Davenport's lot on the corner of Elm and State Streets, and his house on Elm Street, nearly opposite Mr. Baton's./ Here the pastor and his wife received their only child after a separation from him of more than two years; the child having been left in England, and brought over by a maid-servant in a ship, which, in the summer of 1639, sailed from England direct for the harbor of Quinnipiac.
Richard Malbon lived on State Street, his lot being next south of Mr. Davenport's. He was one of the London merchants who came with Eaton and Davenport, was one of the twelve chosen for the foundation of Church and State, and one of the five whom the
twelve sifted out of that number by their own action before the foundation was laid. For some reason, probably for want of church-membership, he was not admitted a member of the court till February, 1642; but only two months after he was made a freeman, he was chosen one of four deputies for the half-year ensuing to assist the magistrates " by way of advice', but not to have any power by way of sentence," and was the first-named of the four. Such a limitation was expressly put upon the deputies in the October election of that year, and was. probably implied in the election six months before. In this office he was continued for a long time by re-election, and, after the organization of the Colonial Government, was often a deputy to represent the plantation in the General Court of the Jurisdiction. In 1646 he was appointed by that body, one of its magistrates in New Haven. The town manifested its confidence in him as a military officer by appointing him " to order the watches and all the martial affairs of this plantation," during Capt. Turner's absence at the Delaware Bay in 1642; and again, when Turner was about to embark in the ill-fated ship of 1646, by choosing Malbon " captain, with liberty to resign his place to Capt. Turner at his return." Mr. Malbon was an enterprising merchant, trading coastwise and in the West Indies. He was als6 one of "the company of merchants of New Haven," who chartered for a voyage to England the ship in which the town lost so much property and so many valuable lives.
Next south of the Malbon house was that of Thomas Nash, formerly a member of the church in Leyden, Holland, and one of the five who wrote from that city in
1625, to their brethren in Plymouth, informing them of the death of John Robinson, pastor of the church which included in its membership the planters of Plymouth, as well as the brethren still sojourning in Leyden. Mr. Nash came from England to New Haven with Mr. Whit-field and his company, and was one of the signers of the agreement which that company made on shipboard to remain together. But being not only a smith, but a gunsmith, it was for the common welfare as well as his own, that he should have his shop in the largest and most central plantation. His change of purpose was probably after the fundamental agreement was made, as he had not signed his name to it when it was copied into the record-book. He must have been advanced beyond the zenith of life, for his eldest son became a proprietor and a freeman not long after his father. I, John Benham probably came from England in 1630, and had been a freeman in Dorchester, Mass. Removing to New Haven, he wrought as a brickmaker. As late as 1651 he petitioned for compensation for time spent at the first settlement in searching for clay suitable for making brick, and his claim was allowed. He was also, by appointment, town-crier. Although himself a freeman, he was at one time implicated in what the General Court of the Jurisdiction regarded as "a factious, if not seditious," opposition to the "fundamental law" which limited the right of suffrage.
John Chapman had also been a freeman of Massachusetts before he came to New Haven. He removed to Fairfield in 1647, and thence to Stamford, where he made his will, 1665. Thomas Kimberly removed from Dorchester, Mass., 126
to New Haven, where he was admitted a freeman in November, 1639. It is said that his son Eleazar, baptized the same month, was the first child born of English parents in Quinnipiac. Mr. Kimberly was one of two pound-keepers appointed by the town in January, 1643 ; and the pound of which he had charge was situated on the east side of State Street, opposite the house of Thomas Nash. Mr. Kimberly had only a small estate when he came to New Haven, but his five children entitled him under the rule of allotment to a much larger acreage than he could draw for his estate. After the removal of Seeley, the first marshal, Kimberly was appointed to that office.
Matthew Gilbert, who lived at the corner of Chapel and Church Streets, in a house fronting toward the market-place, doubtless came with Eaton and Davenport from England, for there is no record of him in Massachusetts; but whether he had been a citizen of London, or had come from some other part of the kingdom, is not known. His election to be one of the seven founders of the theocracy shows that he was, even in the beginning of the settlement, held in high estimation ; and the appointment of him as a deacon shows that he retained the, confidence of the church in subsequent years. He was honored with political as well as ecclesiastical office, being first an assistant magistrate of the jurisdiction, and afterward deputy-governor. A rough stone still standing on the green, marked " M. G. 80," marks the place of his burial. President Stiles conjectured that the M was a W, inverted for the purpose of concealing from his enemies the last resting-place of William Goffe, the regicide; but acknowledged that he
had not found the least tradition or surmise that Goffe was buried in New Haven till he himself conjectured it. The initials are those of Matthew Gilbert; and, if the Arabic numerals were designed (as Stiles supposed) to express that the person buried beneath died in 1680, they give correctly the date of Gilbert's death. More probably they were meant to indicate the number of years he had lived.
Owen Rowe, a citizen of London, took stock in the plantation company, but could not leave home when the Hector sailed. He, however, sent his son Nathanael, a boy in his teens, under the care of Davenport and the Eatons. The youth was left behind in Massachusetts in the spring of 1638, that he might pursue his studies under the care of Nathanael Eaton, the brother of Theophilus and Samuel Eaton, who about that time commenced his extraordinary and disgraceful career as master of the school afterward called Harvard College.1 There is extant a pathetic letter from yeung Rowe to Gov. Winthrop, complaining that Eaton had never given him any instruction, and soliciting the governor to advise him how he may return to his father.2 Owen Rowe, delaying to come till the civil war broke out, became a colonel in the Parliamentary army, and, when King Charles was tried for treason, was one of the judges who condemned him to death. It appears from the records, that, like other wealthy friends of New
1 The coincidence in time between the arrival of the Hector, and the appearance of Nathanael Eaton as an educator, suggests that he may have come in the same ship with his brothers. Winthrop in his Journal, and Savage in his Notes thereupon, have jointly given a graphic picture of him and of his wife, the housekeeper of the college.
* This letter may be found in Appendix II.
England who did not emigrate, he sent over, as an adventure, some cattle. These were regarded, as security for the expense of fencing, and for the rates to be paid "in consideration of his lot and estate here given in." His town-lot was on Church Street, next north of Mr. Gilbert's. As it touched Mr. Davenport's; lot in the rear, it was ordered by the town (doubtless at the pastor's suggestion), " that when Mr. Rowe's lot shall' be fenced in, our pastor shall have a way or passage eight feet broad betwixt it and Mr. Crane's lot, that he may go out of his own garden to the meeting-house." Mr. Rowe not making his appearance, the lot was, after some years, divided and granted on certain conditions to Mr. Davenport, Mr. Gilbert, and Mr. Crane, the adjoining proprietors. The lot on the corner of Church and Elm Streets was at first reserved by the proprietors as a parsonage, if at Mr. Davenport's death or removal it should be needed, but afterward was granted to Nicholas Augur, a practitioner of medicine. This grant had not been made when the schedule of 1641 was written, and the earliest mention of Mr. Augur is in 1644. Some relation of Mr. Augur's troubles as a practitioner of medi-cine, and of the wf'etchedness of his death, will be given in subsequent chapters.
Jasper Crane, the only remaining occupant of the east-centre square, was presumably from London, as he was much connected with the London men in various ways. He first put in his estate at one hundred and eighty pounds, and land was assigned him according in amount with that appraisal; but before the meadows and the out-lands of the third division were allotted, he
was permitted to increase his appraisal to four hundred and eighty pounds, and receive thereafter corresponding allotments of land. He afterward removed to Bran-ford ; represented that town in the General Court of the Jurisdiction in 1653, and was afterward chosen to, be a magistrate.
Four lots on East Water Street, fronting the harbor, were, for the allotment of out-lands, attached to Mr. Davenport's quarter. Their proprietors were James Russell, George Ward, Lawrence Ward, and Moses Wheeler.
Commencing the survey of the south-east square at the corner of Chapel and State Streets, we find the house of William Preston, a Yorkshireman, who died in 1647, leaving a large family, and a small estate here, which was supplemented by his right in a house, land, and other goods " in Yorkshire, in a town called Gigles-weke, in Craven." He and his wife had the care of the meeting-house, which she was to "sweep and dress" every week, having one shilling a week for her pains. He was at one time under the censure of the church, but in his will describes himself as "a member of the church of New Haven."
Next to the premises of Mr. Preston were those of Richard Mansfield, who came to Quinnipiac with the other planters as a steward for Mr. Marshall who was perhaps of London when he engaged in the enterprise,
1 Mr. Malbon, Mr. Lamberton, and Mr. Evance contracted with the town in 1644, to " dig a channel which shall bring boats, at least, to the end of the street beside William Preston's house, at any time of the tide, except they meet with some invincible difficulty, which may hinder their digging the channel so deep."
13O but afterward of Exeter. There was presumably no house on Mr. Mansfield's lot; for he was at first in the service of Mr. Marshall, and afterward, when Mr. Marshall had abandoned the idea of coming, bought of him his lot at the corner of Elm and Church Streets. This became the Mansfield homestead, and a part of the land remained in possession of the family for several generations. It seems, however, from Mr. Mansfield's will, which was nuncupative, and declared by two of his neighbors, that at the time of his decease he was residing at his farm between East Rock and Quinnipiac River. Being asked if, according to English custom, he would give more to his elder than to his younger son, he replied in the negative, alleging that the former "was a wild boy, and the younger was of a better spirit."
Thomas Jeffrey, who lived next south of Mr. Mansfield's lot, was by trade a tanner, and doubtless had reference to his trade in choosing his home-lot; for a stream of water flowed through his land at that time, though it has long since disappeared. At an early day he relinquished his trade, to become a mariner. In 1647, "Capt. Malbon propounded that the town hath been ill provided 'bf sergeants, in regard that Sergeant Jeffrey is abroad much by reason of his occasions at sea, therefore whether the town will not see cause to appoint another' sergeant in his room, and the rather seeing Sergeant Jeffrey hath earnestly desired it, as Lieut. Seeley and Sergeant Munson did testify in court. The captain also affirmed the same, and that he was unwilling to move for a change till that now he under-standeth Sergeant Jeffrey purposeth to employ himself more fully in sea affairs."
George Lamberton, who lived next south of Sergeant Jeffrey was one of the nine proprietors, who, in the schedule of 1641, are rated at one thousand pounds. Of these nine, however, five were non-resident, and soon ceased to pay rates. So that Lamberton was one of four planters who were excelled only by Theophilus Eaton in the amount of their estates. He was from his first appearance in the plantation a mariner, and lost his life in the ship which, under his command, left the harbor of New Haven in January, 1646, and was never afterward heard from. He is mentioned by Ezekiel Rogers fh a letter to Gov. Winthrop, in a manner which suggests that he had been one of Rogers's flock. His influence as a man of mind and of substance may have principally occasioned the large secession of Yorkshire-men who refused to return to the Bay when sent for by Rogers.1 William Wilkes, who lived at the corner of State and George Streets, removed to Quinnipiac from Boston, where he had resided since 1633. He went to England in 1644, intending to return ; but, instead of returning, he sent for his wife to join him in England. She, embarking in Lamberton's ship, was lost at sea. News of Mr. Wilkes's decease was probably received soon after; for a will made by his wife was admitted to probate, which disposed of their whole estate. The house and orchard were sold for forty pounds; the house being appraised at thirty pounds, and the land at ten pounds. Benjamin Fen proprietor of the lot on George Street, adjoining the premises of Willfam Wilkes, removed to Milford with the other first planters of that
1 See page 83.
town. At this time he had but a small estate, and was in no way prominent; but afterward he became one of the leading men in the colony.
Robert Seeley, the next grantee, sold, in 1646, "his house and house-lot" to John Basset, with two acres of upland out of his first division, and afterward resided on the west side of West Creek, as appears from a deed of gift which he made of " his dwelling-house, with his orchard " to his son Nathaniel. He had removed from Watertown, now called Cambridge, Mass., with the first planters of Connecticut, and had been Capt. Mason's lieutenant in the attack on the Pequot fort at Mystic. Removing again, he came to Quinnipiac before its planters had established their fundamental agreement, and was admitted a freeman on the day the court was organized. He was by trade a shoemaker; but being marshal of the court, lieutenant of the train-band, and captain of the artillery company, much of his time was employed in public affairs. In the autumn of 1646, about the time he sold his house in Mr. Lamberton's quarter, he had "liberty of the court to go for England, although a public officer." It appears, however, that he did not immediately use his liberty, for he was here in the following February. In 1649 he was minded to remove from the town, and offered his resignation; but the court refused to receive it as long as he remained, and "the four sergeants were desired to take some pains to see what men would underwrite" for the encouragement of Lieut. Seeley to remain. At a subsequent meeting, the sergeants having accomplished but little, sixteen or seventeen pounds were pledged by those present, and "the sergeants were desired to speak with those that are
not present, to see what they will do." In 1659 appears the alienation of another house, after which his name disappears for a time from the records, as if he were absent. In 1662 he had "returned from England ;" and " a motion was made in his behalf for some encouragement for his settling among us," which, however, was ineffectual.
Roger Ailing came to New Haven with Capt. Lam-berton, acting as steward during the last half tif the voyage, the former steward having died. Judging from the wages allowed, viz., five pounds ten shillings for the whole voyage, one would conclude that the vessel came from a greater distance than the Bay. He was at this time unmarried, and of small estate. At an early date he became a member of the church and of the court. In 1661 he was chosen treasurer of the jurisdiction, and afterward a deacon of the church.
John Brockett was also, in 1643, unmarried, and of even smaller estate than his neighbor, Roger Ailing. Like him he early became a member of the church and of the court. He was much employed by the court, as well as by individuals, in his profession as a surveyor. Mr. Hickock's lot probably lay next to that of Brockett. Mr. Crane, his agent, surrendered it to the town in 1641, the proprietor having relinquished his intention of coming here to reside. John Budd, the next proprietor, signed the fundamental agreement before it was copied into the book, and remained here till he removed, about 1646, to Southold, L.I., where he acted a more prominent part than at New Haven. Soon after his removal he was appointed a lieutenant, and afterwards represented his
town in the General Court of the Jurisdiction. During his absence in England another person was allowed and desired to exercise the company; the General Court " understanding that he is a member of the church of Salem, and,, had he letters of recommendation, might be admitted a freeman as others are." But he must take the oath of fidelity to the jurisdiction: otherwise the command must vest in the corporal of the company. Mr. Budd sold his house and lot, in New Haven, for a hogshead of sugar.
William Jeanes, who lived at the corner of Church and Chapel Streets, had been one of the first planters, but was not admitted a freeman till 1648. He sold this corner-lot the same year to John Meggs.1 Some years afterward he was at Northampton, whence he removed to Northfield with its first planters, and, though not an ordained minister, conducted the first public Christian worship in that town, preaching under an oak-tree.
Nicholas Elsey, who received his allotment on Chapel Street, adjoining that of Mr. Jeanes, was a cooper by trade. He was present at the ratification of the fundamental agreement in Mr. Newman's barn, and a few years afterward was admitted a freeman.
Richard Hull, who lived on Chapel Street, between Nicholas Elsey and William Preston, signed the fundamental agreement at the time when it was established, and at the first meeting of the court was admitted a
1 See History of the Cutler Corner, by Henry White, in N. H. Col. Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. 1. Mr. White illustrates the relative inferiority in early times of that part of Chapel Street which lies between Church Street and State Street, by a quotation from the records in which it is called " the lane that leadeth to Zuriel Kimberley's house."
freeman, as a member of some other church than that of New Haven. Commencing the survey of the south-centre square, we find at its north-east corner, where the glebe building now is, the house of Thomas Gregson. President Stiles records the tradition that Gregson's house was one of four which excelled in stateliness all other houses erected in New Haven by the first generation of its inhabitants; the three which he groups with Gregson's belonging respectively to Mr. Theophilus Eaton, Mr. John £)avenport, and Mr. Isaac Allerton.1 Gregson was one of the most honored men in the community, intrusted with office continuously from 1640 till he embarked in 1646, with a commission from the Colony of New Haven to obtain, if possible, a charter from Parliament. Having been a merchant in London, he engaged in commerce after his arrival at Quinnipiac; and the voyage in which he lost his life was primarily undertaken for commercial ends. Next west of Mr. Gregson lived Stephen Goodyear, another of the London merchants originally associated together for the commencement of a plantation in New England. Here he was engaged in foreign commerce, sometimes in company with Eaton, Malbon, and Gregson, and sometimes adventuring largely on his individ-
1 As Isaac Allerton was not here at the time of which we are discoursing, it may be appropriate to say that he was one of the voyagers in the Mayflower, and, that having fallen under censure at Plymouth, on account of some commercial transactions in which he was the agent of the colony, he removed first to Marblehead, then a part of Salem, and afterward to New Haven. A lot was granted him on the east side of Union Street; near Fair Street, where he built a " grand house with four porches."
Dual responsibility. Having lost his first wife in Lam-berton's ship, he married the widow of Lamberton, thus uniting two families in one home with advantage to the children of each. Second only to Eaton in the colonial government, his absence in England when Eaton died was a sufficient reason why he was not then advanced to the chief magistracy; and his death in London not long afterward brought his useful and honorable career to an end. The lot next west of that occupied by Mr. Goodyear extended to College Street, and had been assigned to Mr. Hawkins, one of the non-resident proprietors. He seems to have been a friend of Mr. Goodyear, into whose possession the land afterward passed when its first proprietor had relinquished his intention of residing in New Haven.
Fronting on College Street was a lot assigned to Samuel Bailey, who did not long remain in New Haven. His allotment was purchased by William Davis.
Fronting on George Street were six lots belonging to Thomas Buckingham, Thomas Welch, Jeremiah Whitnell, Richard Miles, Nathanael Axtell, and Henry Stonhill, respectively. Axtell, "intending to go home, died in a few weeks before embarking, at Boston." Of the remaining five, four, namely, Buckingham, Welch, Miles, and Stonhill, removed to Milford with the first planters of that town, leaving only Whitnell on -that side of the square. Deacon Richard Miles, however, returned to New Haven in 1641.
According to the schedule of 1641, the proprietors of the south-west square were, at that time, William
Fowler, Peter Prudden, James Prudden, Edmond Tapp, Widow Baldwin, An Elder, Richard Platt, Zachariah Whitman, and Thomas Osborne. The town records show that the lot reserved for an elder had been originally assigned to Timothy Baldwin, who, removing to Milford, sold his allotment to the town. As no land within this square has been traced to Thomas Osborne, it may be inferred that he sold to Mr. Fowler at an early date, and before a record of alienation was required. Mr. Osborne .owned and occupied a house and tanyjrd on the south side of George Street, between Broad and Factory Streets, doubtless preferring this location to his original allotment because of the facilities it afforded for his vocation as a tanner. He afterward became one of the first planters of Easthampton on Long Island; but this property, being given to one of his sons, remained in the name of Osborne far into the nineteenth century. With the exception of Osborne, the original grantees of this square removed to Milford. As they had all emigrated from Herefordshire, or its vicinity, the square was for some years designated as the Herefordshire quarter.
The square next north of that occupied exclusively by Prudden and his friends from Hereford, had been assigned for the most part, if not wholly, to the York-shiremen who came with Ezekiel Rogers.
At the corner of Chapel and York Streets, a lot surrendered by Francis Parrot, one of the Yorkshiremen who returned to Massachusetts and settled at Rowley, was assigned by vote of the town, Nov. 3, 1639, to Thomas James, who, having been pastor of the church
in Charlestown, Mass., had resigned his charge and come hither to reside. In 1642, in response to a call from Virginia for ministers from New England, Mr. James went with two of his clerical brethren to Virginia. The mission was unsuccessful, not however for want of "loving and liberal entertainment," but because the colonial government would not allow them to remain unless they would conform to the Church of England. Mr. James afterward returned to the mother-country, and was a beneficed clergyman in Needham, County of Suffolk, till ejected in 1662 by the Act of Uniformity.
Widow Greene, who owned the lot on York Street, next north of the corner-lot of Mr. James, probably did not long remain at New Haven, as the name does not continue to appear on the records.
Thomas Yale, step-son of Gov. Eaton, owned the next lot, but probably never lived on it. Marrying a daughter of Capt. Turner, he engaged in husbandry, and appears to have made his home at a farm some miles north of the town-plot.1 Thomas Fugill, a Yorkshireman, and, as we learn from the autobiography of Rev. Thomas Shepard, a member, before his emigration, of the family of Sir Richard Darley at Buttercrambe, was one of the seven men selected by the planters of New Haven for their "foundation work." He was also "notary public," or secretary of the plantation, and when a colonial government was instituted by the union of New Haven, Mil-
1 Thomas Yale has usually been reputeS to be the father of Elihu Yale, the benefactor of Yale College; but Professor Dexter has conclusively proved that Elihu Yale was son of David Yale, a brother of Thomas.
ford, and Guilford, was appointed secretary of the jurisdiction. He wrote a neat, legible hand, and so far forth performed the work of his office well; but the town, becoming suspicious of the records, appointed a committee " to view all those orders which are of a lasting nature, and where they are defective, to mend them and then let them be read in the court that the court may confirm or alter them as they see cause." The summary thus prepared is on record in the book kept by Fugill. Meanwhile another committee was investigating the result of a false entry by means of which Fugill had possessed himself of fifty-two acres and thirteen rods in the second division of lands, "instead of twenty-four acres, his full proportion." When this committee reported, "some of the court and town propounded whether it were not requisite and necessary to choose another secretary, who might more faithfully enter and keep the town's records. The secretary confessed his unfitness for the place by reason of a low voice, a dull ear, and slow apprehensions. He was answered, the court had long taken notice of sundry miscarriages through weakness or neglect, yet in tender respect to himself and his family, they had continued him in the place (though with trouble to others); a review of orders, before these offences brake out, being upon that consideration thought necessary and ordered. But upon this discovery of unfaithfulness and falsifying of orders and records, they were called to lay aside those private respects for the public safety. By the court, therefore he was presently put out of his office of secretary for this plantation." Unable to sustain himself under the weight of this punishment and of the censure of the
church which followed it, he sold his estate, left the town, and probably returned to England.
John Punderson, another of the Yorkshire company, and also one of the seven chosen for " foundation work," was Fugill's nearest neighbor on the north. Few men of that generation were so faithful in all public duties as entirely to avoid pecuniary mulct; but there is no record of a fine imposed on John Punderson. A son and a grandson, both bearing the name of John, were deacons in the church which he helped to institute. Another grandson, Rev. Ebenezer Punderson, was one of the fathers of the Episcopal Church in Connecticut. On the corner of York and Elm Streets lived John Johnson, also of the Yorkshire company, who after a few years removed to Rowley, selling his house to his brother Robert, from whom was descended Rev. Samuel Johnson, two years younger than Ebenezer Punderson, but earlier than he in the ministry of the Episcopal Church.
Corporal Abraham Bell lived on Elm Street, next east from Mr. Johnson's corner. In 1647 he sold his estate in New Haven to Job Hall, and removed to Charles-town, Mass. John Evance, who had been a London merchant and a parishioner of Mr. Davenport at St. Stephen's, had a large lot on the corner of Elm and College Streets, part of it being held by him for his brother-in-law, Mr. Mayer, who had not yet emigrated, and, as it proved, never came. Mr. Evance, though less active and conspicuous in civil affairs than some others, was inferior to few or none in commercial enterprise, drawing bills of exchange on Mr. Eldred for beaver and hides shipped
to London, and sending shingles and clapboards to Bar-badoes in vessels to be freighted with sugar in return.
The lot on College Street, next south of that occupied by Mr. Evance, was owned by a widow bearing the Yorkshire name of Constable. The question has been raised, whether the husband of this woman were the Sir William Constable, who, according to Mather, proposed to follow Ezekiel Rogers to New England. This woman was plainly a widow, but not the widow of Sir William. Her husband was styled Mr. ; her estate was small; she emigrated apparently as early as Rogers, and probably in his company; while Sir William did not sail with Rogers, and could not have come afterward without impressing on the page of history some notice of his arrival. Both the name and the location of this family suggest that they belonged to Rogers's company, and they may have been related to the knight who bore their family name. Mrs. Constable afterward became the wife of Deacon Richard Miles. On the corner of College and Chapel Streets lived Joshua Atwater. He was born at Lenham, County of Kent, where he was baptized June 2, 1612. Having been a merchant in Ashford, in the same county, he emigrated in the company of Davenport and Eaton, and engaged in mercantile pursuits, first at New Haven, then at Milford, and afterward at Boston, where he died in 1676. He was treasurer of the jurisdiction till he removed out of its bounds. The lot on Chapel Street, next west of Mr. Atwater's, was assigned to John Cockerill, probably a Yorkshire-man, who built a house thereon, but shortly after removed, leaving his house and lands in charge of Thomas
Fugill. The estate stands in the name of Fugill in the schedule; but when after Fugill's departure the fences decayed, and the rates remained unpaid, it was ascertained that Cockerill had never alienated and still claimed it. Alien Ball, a brother-in-law of Fugill, and perhaps also related to Cockerill, was requested by the town to "take the house and land and improve them for defraying charges of rates and fencings;" but he declined, saying that " the house was uncomfortable to live in." A curious record in regard to this property was made more than sixty years after Cockerill left it in the hands of Fugill; viz., -
"June 20, 1710. Capt. Nathan Andrews and Mr. John Todd, both of New Haven, testify and say that upon their certain knowledge, they formerly knew one Mr. John Fugill to be at New Haven above forty years since, who was reputed to be the son of Mr. Thomas Fugill formerly of New Haven, and that he did not, as they know of, lay any claim to the land in New Haven that was his father's."
Edward Wigglesworth, whose tombstone, marked E. W. 1653, was for a time supposed to distinguish the grave of Edward Whalley, one of the regicide judges, lived on the lot next west of Mr. Cockerill's. An autobiographical paper by his son, Rev. Michael Wiggles-worth, printed in the appendix to this volume, gives a more distinct view of Quinnipiac and of one of its families than any other single document. Thomas Powell lived to old age of the only remaining lot in the Yorkshire quarter. Commencing the survey of the north-west square at
its north-west corner, we find the corner occupied by Edward Tench, whose name was at first given to the quarter. He died in February, 16f$. His wife, of whom he speaks in his will as " lying in the house with me, dangerously sick and near to death by a consumption, so that in the judgment of man she draweth near her change," probably survived him for some time, as his will was presented to the court nearly seven years afterward.
The lot on Grove Street, next east from Mr. Tench's corner, still "temained, when the schedule was written, in the name of Mrs. Higginson, though that lady had died a few weeks before her neighbor Mr. Tench. She was the widow of Rev. Francis Higginson, the first minister of Salem, and probably a kinswoman of the Eatons, as the names Theophilus and Samuel had been given to two of her children, and one of the children was taken by the governor into his family after the death of Mrs. Higginson. In the settlement of the estate, no mention is made of any house on the home-lot; but in 1647 Theophilus Higginson sold to "Christopher Todd his house and home-lot in New Haven lying betwixt the lot now William Judson's and Mr. Tench's." The inference is, that when Mrs. Higginson died, the family were still occupying a temporary habitation.
Henry Browning lived on the corner of Grove and College Streets. He does not appear to have been a freeman. In 1647 he "sold to Goodman William Jud-son all his real estate and commonage, together with a bedstead and trundle-bed, a pair of valance and a piece of blue darnix, a malt mill, a well bucket and chain, two
loads of clay brought home, and the fence about the lot repaired." His name does not occur afterward on the records.
Francis Newman, the owner of the next lot, was admitted a freeman in 1640, chosen ensign of the trainband in 1642, lieutenant of the artillery-company upon its formation in 1645, secretary of the plantation in 1647, and was finally advanced to the highest office in the jurisdiction, being chosen governor after Eaton's death.
John Caffinch, whose lot lay next south of Francis Newman's, probably sailed direct from England to Quinnipiac, arriving in 1639 with the first planters of Guilford, though not in the same ship with Whitfield. He was one of the six principal men chosen to receive from the aboriginal proprietors of Guilford a deed in trust for the whole company of planters. For some reason he concluded to live at New Haven rather than at Guilford. He does not appear to have been a freeman.
David Atwater, a younger brother of Joshua Atwater, had a lot adjoining that of Mr. Caffinch, but never lived on it. He seems to have become a proprietor at a late date, and to have received his whole allotment, with the exception of this town-lot, in the third division. It is conjectured, that, before he became a proprietor at New Haven, he may have had some thought of joining the Kentish colony at Guilford. His residence in New Haven was at his farm between East Rock and Quinnipiac River, where his neighbors were Capt. Turner, Richard Mansfield, and William Potter. His town-lot had been previously, assigned to John
Pocock, who became one of the first planters of Mil-ford. Mr. Atwater died in 1692, having outlived most of the first planters.
Two lots, extending from Mr. Atwater's to the corner of College and Elm Streets, were reserved for nonresidents named respectively Dearmer and Lucas.
On Elm Street, between Mr. Lucas's corner and the corner of Elm and York Streets, lived Andrew Low, widow Williams, Robert Hill, and William Thorpe.
On York Street, between Mr. Thorpe's corner and Mr. Tench's corner, was a lot belonging to Jeremiah Dixon, one of the seven men chosen for foundation work. He early removed from the plantation; and, as he was unmarried, there was probably no house upon his lot.
The only remaining square of the eight which surrounded the market-place was occupied on Elm Street by the lots of two non-residents, Mr. Marshall and Mrs. Eldred, and by the lot of Francis Brewster. Mr. Marshall has already been mentioned in connection with Richard Mansfield, who was his representative and agent. Mrs. Eldred was apparently a widow in London, and perhaps the mother of a Mr. Eldred with whom some of the colonists had commercial correspondence. As the name occurs on the parish-register of St. Stephen's, it may be that the family had been parishioners of Mr. Davenport in Coleman Street. Francis Brewster was from London, and one of the company which came with Davenport. He does not appear to have been a freeman. Mr. Brewster having been lost in Lamberton's ship, and his widow having
married Mr. Pell and removed to New Jersey, the house and home-lot were sold to Mr. Goodenhouse, a Dutchman, who had married the widow of Capt. Turner. Mark Pearce, whose lot was on College Street north of Brewster's corner, had lived at Cambridge, Mass., and removed to New Haven as late as 1642. At a general court held Feb. 24, 164!, ''Mr. Pearce desired the plantation to take notice, that if any will send their children to him he will instruct them in writing or arithmetic." This was 'Several years before Mr. Cheever removed, so that Mr. Pearce's school, if his offer was accepted, must have been additional to that of Cheever.
Jarvis Boykin, a carpenter by trade, was the next proprietor on College Street. He came from the town of Charing in Kent, and had resided two or three years in Charlestown, Mass., before he joined the company which settled at Quinnipiac.
Benjamin Ling occupied the corner of College and Grove Streets. He had removed from Charlestown, Mass., and was present at the formation of the fundamental agreement in 1639. He died in 1673, commending his wife to the care of James Davids, who for some years had been an inmate of his house. Mr. Davids married the widow, who, dying not long after the marriage, left the homestead to him. It was known to some of the inhabitants of New Haven that James Davids was an alias for John Dixwell, and that thi^ian was one of the regicide judges. Marrying a second wife, he became the father of a family, and resided here many years, not only unbetrayed, but
much revered and beloved. Here he died in old age; and his grave on the green is marked, not only by the rude stone bearing his initials which his contemporaries placed there, but by a marble monument erected in later times.
On Grove Street, next east from Mr. Ling's corner, was the lot of Robert Newman. In his barn was held the meeting of planters at which the fundamental agreement was adopted, Mr. Newman himself being the secretary of the meeting. He was elected ruling elder of the church, and continued in that office till his return to England. The latest mention of him as a resident of New Haven is on the eighth day of October, 1649.
On the east side of Elder Newman's lot was the lot of William Andrews, a member of the church and of the court from the first. He was a carpenter by trade, but found time'to keep "an ordinary" or house of entertainment for strangers.
John Cooper lived at the corner of Grove and Church Streets. He was present at the adoption of the fundamental agreement, and became a freeman in October, 1645, his name being the last but one on the list made by Secretary Fugill. " John Cooper took oath to be faithful to, the trust committed to him in viewing fences and pounding cattle, according to the court's order, without partiality or respect of persons." In the execution of this trust, he was to inspect all the fences within the two miles " once every week if no extraordinary providence hinder."
Sergeant Richard Beckley, whose lot lay between that of Mr. Cooper and that of Mr. Marshall, was pres-
ent when the fundamental agreement was adopted, and, as his military title implies, was a member of the court.
Having now surveyed the eight squares which lay around the market-place, let us proceed to the two suburbs, and first to that which lay between the two creeks. Sergeant Samuel Whitehead lived at the corner of George and Meadow Streets. Previous to his residence in New Haven, he had spent some years in Massachusetts and at Hartford. By the marriage of his grand-daughter his homestead passed into the family of Hub-bard, and so continued for nearly two centuries.
John Clark, who lived on Meadow Street next south of Mr. Whitehead, was interpreter when the Montowese Indians sold their land to the English. He had lived about four years in Massachusetts before he came to Quinnipiac with its first planters. Of Luke Atkinson, the next proprietor on Meadow Street, little is known but that he dared to quarrel with Mr. Davenport, and, being charged with slander, was fined forty pounds. He removed from New Haven in 1656.
Edward Banister died in 1649, and his lot passed into other hands. Another lot which lay between State Street and the "East Greek was granted to his widow by the town, on which she "built a house. John Moss, though by no means a wealthy man, gave his son Joseph a liberal education, and had the pleasure of seeing him settled in the ministry at Derby. In his old age John Moss removed to Wallingford, where he died in 1707, aged one hundred and three years. 149 John Charles, a brother-in-law of John Moss, had lived some years in Massachusetts. He was a seafaring man, and removed first to Branford and afterward to Saybrook. Richard Beach removed to New London. Arthur Halbidge came from England to Boston in 1635. He died in 1648. William Peck crossed the Atlantic with Davenport and Eaton. He is said to have been a merchant in London; but the tradition is not easily reconciled with his estimate of his estate, which he put into the * list at twelve pounds. Though not wealthy, he was much respected in the plantation, as appears from his election as a deacon of the church. Timothy Ford, whose lot was at the corner of Meadow and Water Streets, had lived in Massachusetts.
Peter Brown, at a court holden Feb. 5, i6f$, was " licensed to bake to sell, so long as he gives no offence in it justly." He afterward removed to Stamford.
Daniel Paul, whose lot was at the corner of Water and State Streets, soon disappeared from the plantation ; and his lot came into the possession of William Westerhouse, a Dutch merchant. July 3, 1655, John Thompson "bought, at an outcry, the house and lot, and lands which belong to it, which was Mr. Westerhouse's, for .£40.05, which was thus sold by order of the court." About a month afterward the purchaser sold to John Hodson " the house he bought of the court, which was Mr. Westerhouse's, and the land which belongs to it, and Mr. Hodson is to pay the court for it, .£40.05."
John Livermore, who lived on State Street, next north of Goodman Paul's corner, came to Massachu-
setts from Ipswich, England, in 1634. He signed the fundamental agreement after it had been copied into the record-book.
Henry Rutherford died in 1668: his widow married William Leete, Governor of the Colony of New Haven and afterwards Governor of the Colony of Connecticut.
Thomas Trowbridge was from Taunton or its vicinity, in the county of Somerset. He was a merchant, trading to Barbadoes.
The lots of widow Potter and John Potter passed at an early date into the possession of Alien Ball, though there is no record of the transfer.
Passing now to the suburb on the west side of West Creek, we find, on the corner made by the streets now named Hill Street and C6ngress Avenue, the lot of William Ives. He died in 1648, leaving a wife and four children. William Basset married the widow; and the family continued to reside in the house till it was sold, in 1652, to the widow of Anthony Thompson.
The next lot fronting on Hill Street was assigned to George Smith, who in 1655 sold his house and home-lot to Timothy Ford. He describes the premises as lying between the house that was Matthew Canfield's and that which was William Ives's. The lot thus described as having belonged to Matthew Canfield must have been, if the order of the schedule is to be followed, the property of widow Sherman before Matthew Canfield acquired it. " An inventory and will of old father Sherman was delivered into the couirt" in May, 1641, and soon afterward the name of (Campfield) Canfield first appears.
These three are all of the lots in the suburb on the west side of the West Creek that can be located. The other" proprietors in this suburb were Matthew Moul-throp, Anthony Thompsont John Reeder, Robert Cogs- well, Matthias Hitchcock, Francis Hall, Richard Os-borne, William Potter, James Clark, Edward Patteson, and Andrew Hull.
As the schedule assigns nothing to Matthew Moul-throp, it is doubtful whether he ever acquired a complete title to a lot in this quarter.
Anthony Thompson died about ten years after the first settlement of the town. His widow married Nicholas Camp of Milford. As one of his two brothers was childless, and the other' had only daughters, he is probably the ancestor of all, or nearly all, in New Haven who, bear the name of Thompson.1
The name of John Reeder is not found in any record later than the schedule of 1641. The name of Robert Cogswell disappears about the same time. At that early day alienations were not always recorded; and, unless it has escaped a very close scrutiny, there is no record of the sale of their lots by these two proprietors.
The names of Matthias Hitchcock, Francis Hall, and Richard Osborne follow next in the schedule. They all remained long in the town, and probably died here. " Matthias Hitchcock passeth over to John Wakefield his house and home-lot on the other side of the West
1 There was another Thompson at Fairfield, contemporary with Anthony of New Haven. Possibly, from that source or some other, Thompsons may have removed to New Haven, and become undistinguishably mixed with the descendants of Anthony.
152 HISTORY OF NEW HAVEN COLONY. Creek," Feb. 6, 1655. Richard Osborne was a tanner by trade, and the coincidence of name and occupation suggests that he was a brother of Thomas Osborne. William Potter removed from his town-lot, if he ever built a house on it, "to his farm on the west side of Quinnipiac River. After having been for many years a church-member, he was accused of bestiality, and upon his own confession was condemned to death and executed. James Clark removed to the liorth part of the town, and afterward to Stratford. The name of Edward Patteson does not occur after 1646. Andrew Hull died in 1643, and his widow became the wife of Richard Beach. Besides the home-lots assigned to proprietors, thirty-two "small lots" had been freely given to as many householders, before the second division of out-lands was made. The records furnish a list of these householders having no right of commonage, in the order in which they were drawn by lot for the choice of the out-lands allowed them in "the second division. Seven of them dwelt on "the bank-side," that is, on East Water Street and east of the four proprietors whose land extended from Union Street to Chestnut Street; the other twenty-five had their homes between George Street and the West Creek. The seven on the bank-side were William Russell, Francis Brown, Thomas Morris, Nathaniel Merriman, Robert Pigg, Thomas Beamont, and William Gibbons.
153 The whole catalogue reads thus, viz., -
1. Stephen Metcalf.
2. Adam Nicolls.
3. Nathaniel Merriman.
4. John Thompson.
5. Brother Kimberly's brother.
6. John Nash.
7. Mrs. Swinerton. 8. Goodman Davis.
9. Richard Newman.
17. Francis Brown.
Elizabeth, the washer.
In estimating the population of New Haven at this period, one must take into account not only proprietors and householders, but indentured and hired servants. The records show1 that both these classes were numerous. The families of the proprietors contained four hundred and twenty souls, counting only their wives and children with themselves.
Deducting those who never left England, and those who removed to Milford, and adding the families to which lots had been freely given, we have by equal ratio a population of about four hundred and sixty. But the houses of the Milford people were not all empty. Some of them were hired and occupied by persons who did not care to become proprietors. The number of dependents of one kind and another attached to all these families must have nearly
equalled, and perhaps it exceeded, the census returned by the proprietors. Gov. Eaton returns only six; but his family is said to have contained thirty persons. In no other family was there so large a proportion of servants; but there was scarcely a householder whose family was limited to himself, his wife, and his children. Artisans and farmers had young men and boys in their employ, and maid-servants were to be found in almost every household.
If on the basis of these facts we estimate the whole number of souls in the plantation tc eight hundred, confirmation of such an estimate is found in the military census, which after the elders, deacons, magistrates, deputies, physicians, military officers of a higher grade than sergeants, the schoolmaster, the miller, and masters of vessels carrying more than fifteen tons were exempted, provided thirty-one watches, each consisting of seven men, out of the male population between sixteen and sixty years of age. If there were two hundred and seventeen men liable to this duty, and thirty more who were exempt, the entire population could not have been much less than eight hundred.1
1 The Dutch authorities at New Amsterdam reported to their superiors in Holland that Rodenbergh, or New Haven, contained, eleven years after it was founded, about 1,340 families. But, though affirmed of New Haven town, it must have been, I think,'their informant's estimate of the population of the colony.