CHAPTER XI.

THE colony sustained a great loss this year, in the death of Governor Haynes. He had been a father to it from the beginning; employed his estate, counsels, and labours, for its emolument, and bore a large share in its hardships and dangers. He was a gentle-man from the county of Essex, in England, where he had an ele-gant seat, called Copford Hall, worth a thousand pounds sterling a year. He came into New-England with the Rev. Mr. Hooker, in 1632, and settled with him, first at Cambridge, in Massachu-setts. His distinguished abilities, prudence, and piety, so recom-mended him to the people, that, in 1635, he was chosen governor of Massachusetts. He was not considered, in any respect, inferior of Governor Winthrop. His growing popularity, and the fame of Mr. Hooker, who, as to strength of genius, and his lively and powerful manner of preaching, rivalled Mr. Cotton, were sup-

1Records of New-Haven. The general court of Connecticut, at their session in November, ordered that 20 pounds should be paid to the support of & fellowship in Cambridge College.


1654]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

177

posed to have had no small influence upon the general court, in their granting liberty to Mr. Hooker and his company to remove to Connecticut. There, it was judged, they would not so much eclipse the fame, nor stand in the way of the promotion and honour of themselves or their friends. Upon his removal to Connec-ticut, he was chosen governor of this colony. He appeared to be a gentleman of eminent piety, strict morals, and sound judg-ment. He paid attention to family government, instruction, and religion. His great integrity, and wise management of all affairs, in private and public, so raised and fixed his character, in the esteem of the people, that they always, when the constitution would permit, placed him in the chief seat of government, and con-tinued him in it until his death.1

Mr. Hopkins was in England, and the colony had neither gov-ernor nor deputy governor present, to act in its behalf. The free-men, therefore, in February, convened at Hartford, and elected Mr. Thomas Wells moderator of the general court, until a gov-ernor should be chosen.

About this time, there happened a great controversy between Uncas and the inhabitants of New-London, relative to their re-spective limits. It seems that the inhabitants carried the dispute so far, as to rise and take possession of his forts and many of his wigwams. The assembly interposed, and gave orders, that the Indians should not be injured, and that the people should be ac-countable for all damages which they had done them. A com-mittee was appointed, March 1st, to fix the boundaries between New-London and Uncas, and to compose all differences between the parties.

Nearly at the same time, the colony received an order from the parliament, requiring that the Dutch should be treated, in all re-spects, as the declared enemies of the commonwealth of England. In conformity to this order, the general court was convened, and an act passed sequestering the Dutch house, lands, and property

1The governor, by two wives, had eight children; five sons and three daughters. By his first, he had Robert, Hezekiah, John, Roger, and Mary; and by his second, Joseph, Ruth, and Mabel. When he came into New-England, he left his sons, Robert and Hezekiah, and his daughter Mary, at Copford Hall. Upon the com-mencement of the civil wars in England, Robert espoused the royal cause; but Hezekiah, declaring for the parliament, was, afterwards, promoted to the rank of major-general, under Cromwell. Upon the ruin of the king's affairs, Robert was put under confinement, and died without issue. Hezekiah enjoyed Copford Hall, under his father, until his decease. He then possessed it as a paternal inheritance, and it descended to his heirs. John and Roger, who came into this country with their father, some time before his death returned to England. Roger died on his passage, or soon after his arrival. John settled in the ministry, at or near Colches-ter, in the county of Essex, in England, where he left issue. Joseph was ordained pastor of the first church in Hartford. Mary married Mr. Joseph Cook, in Eng-land; Ruth, Mr. Samuel Wyllys, of Hartford; and Mabel, Mr. James Russell, of Charlestown, in Massachusetts; and all had issue. The Rev. Mr. Haynes, of Hartford, had one son, John, a gentleman of reputation, for some years one of the magistrates of the colony. He had sons, but they died without issue, and the name became extinct in this country.


178

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1654

of all kinds, at Hartford, for the benefit of the commonwealth; and the court, also, prohibited all persons whatsoever from improving the premises, by virtue of any former claim, or title, had, made, or given, by any of the Dutch nation, or any other person, without their approbation.

In the proclamation for a general fast, this spring, the great breach made in the colony, by the death of the governor; the alienation of the colonies, on account of the violation of the ar-ticles of confederation; the spreading of erroneous opinions in the churches; the mortality which had been among the people of Massachusetts; and the calamitous state of the English nation; were particularized as matters of humiliation.

The colony was, this year, deprived of Mr. Ludlow, one of its chief magistrates. He was one of the most zealous for prosecut-ing the war against the Dutch, and no man was more displeased, that the colonies did not follow the determinations of the commis-sioners. He might apprehend himself to be particularly in danger at Fairfield. Besides, he had taken a very hasty and unadvised step, in accepting the command of men to go against the Dutch, without any legal appointment. He had, doubtless, apprehen-sions of trouble on that account, or, at least, that the freemen would neglect him. For some, or all of these reasons, about this time, he removed with his family to Virginia.1 He was clerk of the town of Fairfield, and carried off their records, and other public writings. He came from the west of England, with Mr. Warham and his company. In 1630, he was chosen into the mag-istracy of the Massachusetts company; and in 1634, deputy gov-ernor of that colony. He was twice elected deputy governor of Connecticut, and was every year magistrate or deputy governor, from his first coming into the colony, in 1635, until the time of his departure. He appears to have been distinguished for his abil-ities, especially his knowledge of the law, and the rights of man-kind. He rendered most essential services to this commonwealth; was a principal in forming its original civil constitution, and the compiler of the first Connecticut code, printed at Cambridge, in 1672. For jurisprudence, he appears to have been second to none who came into New-England at that time. Had he possessed a happier temper, he would, probably, have been the idol of the peo-ple, and shared in all the honours which they could have given him.

Nearly at the same time, an affair happened, in which the peo-ple of Milford exhibited a noble spirit of zeal and enterprise. One captain Manning, master of a ten gun ship, had been apprehended for an unlawful trade with the Dutch, at the Manhadoes. While the affair was upon trial before the court at New-Haven, his men

1By the records of New-Haven, it appears, that he was shippirg his family and effects on the 26th of April.


1654]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

179

ran off with the ship from Milford harbour. The people com-pletely armed and manned a vessel, with so much dispatch, that they pressed hard upon the ship before she could reach the Dutch island. The men, perceiving they must be taken, unless they im-mediately abandoned the ship, made their escape in their boat. The ship, thus left adrift, was recovered, and brought into Milford harbour, and, with all her goods, condemned as a lawful prize.

At the general election, May 18th, Mr. Hopkins, though in England, was chosen governor. Mr. Wells was appointed deputy governor. Mr. Webster, Mr. Mason, Mr. Winthrop, Mr. Cullick, Mr. Wolcott, Mr. Clark, Mr. Wyllys, son of George Wyllys, and Mr. John Talcott, were elected magistrates. Mr. Cullick was sec-retary, and Mr. Talcott treasurer.

At this court, the freemen passed the following resolution, as an addition to the fundamentals of their constitution:-"That the major part of the magistrates, in the absence of the governor and deputy governor, shall have power to call a general court; and that any general court, being legally called and met, the major part of the magistrates and deputies then met, in the absence of the governor and deputy governor, shall have power to choose unto, and from among themselves, a moderator, which being done, they shall be deemed as legal a general court, as if the gov-ernor, or deputy governor were present."

At the election in New-Haven, May 31st, the only alteration in public officers, was the addition of Mr. Samuel Eaton, of New-Haven, to the magistrates, and the choice of Mr. Benjamin Fenn, in the room of captain John Astwood.

About the same time, in answer to the petitions of Connecticut and New-Haven, major Sedgwick and captain Leveret arrived at Boston, with a fleet of three or four ships, and a small number of land forces, sent by Oliver Cromwell, lord protector, for the re-duction of the Dutch. On the 8th of June, governor Eaton re-ceived a letter from his highness, certifying, that he had sent ships and ammunition for the assistance of the colonies. With this came a letter from major Sedgwick and captain Leveret, requesting, that commissioners might be sent immediately from each of the gov-ernments, to consult with them on the objects of the designed ex-pedition. Mr. William Leet and Mr. Jordan were appointed com-missioners for New-Haven. They were authorised to engage, in behalf of that jurisdiction, to furnish all the men and provisions which it could spare. An embargo was laid on all provisions, and every measure adopted, that the utmost assistance might be given, in the enterprise. Such was the zeal of the general court, that they instructed their commissioners to engage the assistance of that colony, though no other, except Connecticut, should join with them.

On the 13th of June, the general court of Connecticut con-


180

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1654

vened, at Hartford, and appointed major John Mason and Mr. Cullick commissioners. They were directed to proceed with the utmost dispatch to Boston; and, in behalf of Connecticut, to en-gage any number of men, not exceeding two hundred, but rather than the expedition should fail, four or five hundred.

The general court of Massachusetts was convoked on the 9th of June, but did not agree to raise any men themselves. They granted liberty, nevertheless, for major Sedgwick and captain Leveret to raise five hundred volunteers. The commissioners finally agreed upon 800 men, as sufficient for the enterprise. The ships were to furnish two hundred soldiers; three hundred volun-teers were to be raised in Massachusetts; two hundred men were to be sent from Connecticut; and a hundred and thirty three from New-Haven. But while preparations were making with vigor and dispatch, the news of peace, between England and Holland, pre-vented all further proceedings relative to the affair.

The total defeat of the Dutch fleet, the loss of admiral Tromp and a great number of their merchantmen, made the Dutch in earnest for peace; and it was expeditiously concluded, on the 5th of April. The news of it arrived in America, almost as soon as the fleet. The commander in chief therefore employed his forces, with the Massachusetts volunteers, in dispossessing the French from Penobscot, St. John's, and the adjacent coast. This was doubt-less one object of the expedition, and not undertaken without orders from the protector.

It was not expected, that there would have been any meeting of the commissioners this year. Massachusetts had violated the articles of union, and the colonies had protested against them, as breakers of the most solemn confederation. The general court of Massachusetts had also represented, to the other colonies, that the articles needed explanation and emendation, that they might be consistent with the rights of the several general courts. Indeed, it had proposed a meeting of the commissioners for that purpose. The other colonies viewed the articles as perfectly intelligible, and consistent with the rights of the confederates. They therefore rejected the motion. The general court of New-Haven had voted, that there was no occasion for appointing commissioners that year.

But on the 5th of July, governor Eaton received a letter from the general court of the Massachusetts, waiving an answer to the letter jointly written from the general courts of Connecticut and New-Haven, and lamely excusing their non-compliance with the resolution of the commissioners, on the account of their not be-ing able to apprehend the justice of the war with the Dutch and Ninigrate. They complained of the other colonies, for treating them as violators of the confederacy. They professed themselves to be passionately desirous of its continuance, according to the


1654]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

181

genuine construction of the articles. They gave information, that they had chosen commissioners, and had determined to empower them as had been usual.

The general court, at New-Haven, replied, that they and the other colonies had justly charged them with a violation of their covenant, and urged, that, according to their own interpretation of the articles, they stood responsible to them for the infraction; and that, according to the eleventh article of the confederation, they were to be treated by them according to the magnitude of their fault. They observed, that her sister colonies had not only condemned their conduct, but had sent messengers and taken proper pains to inform them, and adjust the difference between them; but that they had treated them in a very disagreeable man-ner, and their endeavours had been to no good purpose. They declared, nevertheless, that, if the combination might be again firmly settled, according to the original intention and grammatical sense of the articles, they would, without further satisfaction, for-getting what was past, cheerfully renew their covenant, and send their commissioners to meet, at any time and place, for that end, This was subscribed by the secretary, and sent to Hartford, to be subscribed by the general court of Connecticut; and to be trans-mitted, in the name of each of the colonies, to the Massachusetts, This, it seems, was harmoniously done.

As the general court of the Massachusetts would not join with her confederates, against Ninigrate, he prosecuted the war against the Long-Island Indians, and it was supposed, that his design was to destroy, both those Indians and the Moheagans. For this pur-pose he had hired the Mohawks, Pocomtocks, and Wampanoags, afterwards called Philip's Indians, to assist him. By a collection of such numbers of Indians, from the westward, northward, and eastward, the general peace of the country would have been greatly endangered, and the Long-Island Indians, who had put themselves under the protection of the English, exposed to a total extirpation. They had been obliged, not only to fortify them-selves, and to use every precaution for their own defence, but to suffer the loss of many of their people, who had been already either slain or captivated.

The deputy governor, and council, of Connecticut, judged it an affair of such importance, to defend their allies, and provide for their own safety, that they determined to dispatch major Mason, with ammunition, and a number of men, to the assistance of the Indians upon the Island. The deputy governor and Mr. Clark ac-quainted governor Eaton with their views and determination, and desired that the colony of New-Haven would send lieutenant Seeiy, with a detachment of men, and with supplies of ammuni-tion, to second their design. The court of New-Haven complied with the desire of Connecticut. Lieutenant Seely had orders to


182

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1654

join major Mason at Saybrook. They were instructed to acquaint the Montauket Indians, that the colonies made them that present of ammunition, wholly for their own defence, and not to enable them to injure Ninigrate, or any other Indians, unless they should make an attack upon them: and that, while they continued faith-ful to the English, they would be their friends. It was ordered that, if Ninigrate should invade the Long-Island Indians, the English officers should use their endeavours to persuade them to peace, and to refer their differences to the decision of the com-missioners. But if he would fight, they were commanded to de-fend themselves, and the Indians in alliance with the colonies, in the best manner they could.1

On September 7th, the commissioners convened at Hartford. They consisted of the following gentlemen, Mr. Simon Bradstreet, major Denison, Mr. Thomas Prince, Mr. John Brown, major Mason, Mr. John Webster, governor Eaton, and Mr. Francis Newman. Governor Eaton was chosen president. They imme-diately dispatched messengers to Ninigrate, demanding his ap-pearance at Hartford, and the payment of the tribute so long due for the Pequots under him. On the i8th, Mr. Jonathan Gilbert returned, and made a report of Ninigrate's answer, in the words following:

"Concerning the Long-Island Indians, he answered, wherefore should he acquaint the commissioners, as the Long-Island Ind-ians began with him, and had slain a sachem's son, and sixty of his men; and therefore he will not make peace with the Long-Islanders; but doth desire that the English will let him alone; and that the commissioners would not request him to go to Hart-ford; for he hath done no hurt. What should he do there? If our governor's son were slain, and several other men, would you ask counsel of another nation, how and when to right yourselves? And added, that he would neither go nor send to Hartford. Con-cerning the upland Indians,2 his answer was, that they were his friends, and came to help him against the Long-Islanders, who had killed several of his men. Wherefore should he acquaint the commissioners of it? He did but right his own quarrel, which the Long-Islanders began with him." With respect to the tribute due for the Pequots, though he had never paid it, yet he pretended there was none due.

The commissioners, considering his perfidious conduct, the last year, his present answer, and that lenity and forbearance had been an encouragement of his insolence and barbarity, ordered forty horsemen, and two hundred and seventy infantry to be raised, to chastise his haughtiness. The Massachusetts were to raise the forty horsemen, and a hundred and fifty-three footmen;

1 Records of Connecticut and New-Haven.

2Thus he called the Pocomtocks and Wampanoags.


1654]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

183

Connecticut forty-five, and New-Haven thirty-one. Orders were given, that twenty horse, from Massachusetts, twenty-four men from Connecticut, and sixteen from New-Haven, should be im-mediately dispatched into the Nehantick country. The commis-sioners nominated major Gibbons, major Denison, or captain Atherton, to the chief command; leaving it, in complaisance, to the general court of Massachusetts, to appoint which of the three should be most agreeable to them. But rejecting these, who were men of known spirit and enterprise, they appointed major Wil-lard. The commissioners instructed him to proceed with such troops, as should be found at the place of general rendezvous, by the I3th of October, directly to Ninigrate's quarters, and demand of him the Pequots, who had been put under him, and the tribute which was due. If Ninigrate should not deliver them, and pay the tribute, he was required to take them by force. He was in-structed to demand of Ninigrate, a cessation from all further hos-tilities against the Long-Islanders. If he would not comply with these demands, he had express orders to subdue him. If a greater number of men should be found necessary, his instructions were to send for such a number, as he should judge sufficient to carry the expedition into effect. The place of rendezvous was at Thomas Stanton's, in the Narraganset country. When he ar-rived at the place appointed, he found that Ninigrate had fled into a swamp, at fourteen or fifteen miles distance from the army. He had left his country, corn, and wigwams, without defence, and they might have been laid waste, without loss or danger. Never-theless, he returned, without ever advancing from his head quar-ters, or doing the enemy the least damage.

About a hundred Pequots took this opportunity to renounce the government of Ninigrate, and come off with the army. They put themselves under the protection and government of the English.

The commander pleaded, in excuse, that his instructions were equivocal, and the season for marching unfavorable. The com-missioners, however, were entirely unsatisfied. They observed to him, "That, while the army was in the Narraganset country, Ninigrate had his mouth in the dust; and that he would have sub-mitted to any reasonable terms, which might have been imposed upon him." They charged the major with neglecting an oppor-tunity of humbling his pride; and they referred it to his considera-tion, what satisfaction ought to be expected from him, and those of his council, who advised and joined with him in his measures.1

Governor Hutchinson has observed, that major Willard was a Massachusetts man, and although that colony had so far com-plied with the rest, as to join in sending out the forces, yet they were still desirous of avoiding an open war. This was the second time of their preventing a general war, contrary to the minds of six of the commissioners of the other colonies.2

1Records of the united colonies.

2Hutchinson, vol. i. p. 186, 187.


184

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1655

The general court of Massachusetts had receded from their ex-planation of the articles of confederation, and the commissioners had a most amicable meeting. They were unanimous in the war against Ninigrate, and yet the Massachusetts, by private intrigue, defeated their designs. In which instance they acted the most honorable and consistent part, when, by an open infraction of the articles of union, they prevented a war, or when they supplanted their brethren, by secret treachery, the impartial world will judge. The whole number of ratable persons, in the colony of Con-necticut this year, was 775, and the grand list was 79,073 pounds.1 Upon the election at Hartford, May 17th, Thomas Wells, Esq'r. was chosen governor, and Mr. John Webster, deputy-governor. The magistrates elected were, Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Mason, Mr. Winthrop, Mr. Wolcott, Mr. Cullick, Mr. Clark, Mr. Wyllys, Mr. Talcott, Mr. John Cosmore, and Mr. Thomas Tapping. Mr. Cul-lick was secretary, and Mr. Talcott treasurer.

At the general election in New-Haven, this year, there was no alteration of their officers.

The Pequots persevering, in their petitions, to be taken under the protection and government of the English, the commission-ers, this year, granted their request. Places of residence were afterwards appointed for them, by the general court of Connecti-cut, about Pawcatuck and Mistic rivers. They were allowed to hunt on the lands west of the latter. They were collected together in these two places, and an Indian governor was appointed over them in each place. General laws were made for their govern-ment. Blasphemy, murder, witchcraft, and conspiracy against the colonies, were prohibited upon pain of death. Sabbath-break-ing, adultery, and drunkenness, were prohibited under proper penalties. He who stole was required, on conviction, to pay double damages. They were prohibited to make war with other Indians, or to join with them in their wars, unless it were in their own just defence, without the consent of the commissioners of the united colonies. They were obliged to submit to the Indian governors, whom they should appoint over them, and pay them the same tribute which they had stipulated to pay to the English.2


1655]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

185

After the return of major Willard and the troops under his com-mand, from the Narraganset country, Ninigrate assumed his for-mer haughtiness, and continued the war against the Indians upon Long-Island. Mr. Thomas James, minister of Easthampton, cap-tain Tapping of Southampton, captain Underhill and others, wrote to the commissioners, that both the English and Indians on the Island were in a calamitous and distracted condition; and in im-minent danger, on the account of his constant hostilities. They assured them, that the Indians, upon the Island, could not hold out much longer, but must submit themselves and their country to the Narragansets, unless they should have some speedy as-sistance. They intreated them to consult some effectual meas-ures to prevent such calamity.

In consequence of this intelligence, they ordered, that a vessel, well armed and manned, should lie in the road between Neanticut and the Island, to watch the motions of Ninigrate; and, if he should attempt to pass the sound, to stave and destroy his canoes, and to make all the slaughter and destruction upon him, which should be in their power. Captain John Youngs was appointed to command this vessel of observation. He was authorised to draught men from Saybrook and New-London, as emergencies might require. An encouraging message was sent to the Mon-tauket sachem, acquainting him with the measures the English were taking for his defence. The commissioners sent him a sup-ply of ammunition. Provision was also made, that South and East-Hampton, with all the adjacent towns, should be completely furnished with all articles necessary for war. Orders were given, that if the Indians could not maintain their ground, in any as-sault, they should flee towards some of the neighbouring towns; and that, if the enemy should pursue them within two miles of any of the settlements, the inhabitants should immediately repair to their assistance. Intelligence of these resolutions was dis-patched to the Narragansets, as well as the Long-Islanders. All the united colonies were exceedingly offended at the conduct of major Willard, except the Massachusetts, under whose influ-ence he was supposed to act. The general court at New-Haven, resolved, that he had not followed his instructions, in the expedi-tion against Ninigrate; but that they were willing to suspend their judgment, with respect to the measures to be taken with him, until they should be certified of the opinions of the other confed-erates. Whatever their opinions or wishes were, major Willard was safe under the wing of the Massachusetts; and Connecticut and New-Haven had principally to bear the unhappy conse-quences of his perfidious conduct. They were obliged, the next year, at their own expense, to continue the commission of cap-tain Youngs to cruise between the main and Long-Island, to prevent the designs of Ninigrate. They also found it necessary


186

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1655

to furnish both men and provisions, for the defence of the Isl-anders.

Governor Eaton had been desired to perfect a code of laws for the colony of New-Haven. For his assistance in the compilation, he was requested, by the general court, to consult the Rev. Mr. Cotton's discourse on civil government in a new plantation, and the laws of Massachusetts. Having accomplished the work, and the laws having been examined and approved, by the elders of the jurisdiction, they were presented to the general court. They ordered that 500 copies should be printed. The copy was sent to England, that the impression might be made under the inspec-tion of governor Hopkins. He procured the printing of the laws, at his own expense, and sent them the number proposed, with some other valuable books, as a present. The laws were distrib-uted to the several towns in the jurisdiction.

This year, died Henry Wolcott, Esq'r. in the 78th year of his age. He was the owner of a good estate in Somersetshire, in Eng-land. His youth, it is said, was spent in gaiety and country pas-times; but afterwards, under the instructions of Mr. Edward El-ton, his mind was entirely changed, and turned to the sincere love and practice of religion. As the puritans were then treated with great severity, he sold about 8,000 pounds worth of estate in Eng-land, and prepared for a removal into America. He came into New-England with Mr. Warham, in May, 1630, and settled first at Dorchester, in Massachusetts. In 1636, he removed to Wind-sor, and was one of the principal planters of that town. He was chosen into the magistracy in 1643, and continued in it until his death. He left an estate in England, which rented at about sixty pounds a year, which the family, for some time, enjoyed; but it was afterwards sold. After his decease, some one of his descend-ants was annually chosen into the magistracy, for a term of nearly eighty years, until the year 1754, when governor Wolcott left the chair.1

At the election in Connecticut, Mr. John Webster was chosen governor, and Mr. Wells deputy governor. This was the only alteration in the magistracy.

At New-Haven, in May, 1656, the former governors and magis-trates were rechosen. Mr. John Wakeman was appointed treas-

1Manuscripts from Windsor, found in the collection of the Rev. Mr. Prince, at Boston.

The family have kept tip the monument of their ancestor, and preserved their dignity to the present time. His Excellency, Oliver Wolcott, Esq'r. one of the sons of the former governor Roger Wolcott, Esq'r. is the present governor of the state. His brother, the Hon. Erastus Wolcott, Esq'r. was, for some years, one of the magistrates of Connecticut, and, afterwards, one of the judges of the superior court. Oliver Wolcott Esq'r. one of the sons of the present governor Wolcott, is secretary of the treasury of the United States. Some of the family have been mem-bers of the assembly, judges of the superior court, or magistrates, from the first settlement of the colony to this time, during the term of more than a century and a half.--A. D. 1797.


1656]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

187

urer. The general court at New-Haven, took great pains to put the colony in a state of defence. Orders were given for the raising of a troop of sixteen horse, in the five towns upon the sea coast, with complete arms and furniture. For their encouragement, they were exempted from taxation, and from training with the foot, and were to enjoy all the privileges of troopers in Massachu-setts. This was the first troop in any part of Connecticut. It was ordered, that all the common soldiers should be trained to shooting at a mark; that they should be furnished with ammuni-tion for that purpose, at the public expense; and that prizes should be prepared for the best marksmen. The soldiers were directed to play at cudgels, and at the broad sword, that they might know how to defend themselves and their country.

The protector, Oliver Cromwell, having conquered Jamaica, made it a favourite object to remove the people of New-England to that island. He artfully represented, that they had as clear a call for transporting themselves from New-England to Jamaica, as they had for emigrating from Old England to New, for the advancement of their interests; as the Lord's people were to be the head, and not the tail. He likewise represented, that it would have a tendency to the destruction of the man of sin. He wrote particularly to New-Haven on the subject, and sent them a copy of his instructions relative to the affair. These he had given to one captain Gookins, whom he had employed in the several plan-tations, to promote this, his favourite design. He and major Sedg-wick dispatched letters also to New-Haven, on the same business.

Governor Eaton had, some time before this, laid them before the general court. The several plantations in the colony had been made acquainted with their contents, and the deputies had been desired to return their opinion to the court. After a long and serious debate, the court resolved, "That, though they could not but acknowledge the love, care, and tender respect of his highness, the Lord Protector, to New-England in general, and to this colony in particular, yet, for divers reasons, they cannot conclude that God calls them to a present remove thither."

The governor was desired to write to the lord protector, ac-knowledging his great care and love towards the colony.

The commissioners of the united colonies, September 4th, held their meeting at Plymouth. They received a very plausible letter from Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor. He wrote with a great show of religion, expressing his joy that God had quenched the bloody war between the Dutch and the English, in Europe; and his warm desires, that it might redound to the great advantage of the subjects of the two nations, in these remote parts of the earth. He solicited a nearer union between the Dutch and the united col-onies. At the same time, he certified them, that he had received a ratification of the agreement made at Hartford, in 1650, under


188

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1656

the seal of the High and Mighty States of the United Belgick Provinces; and desired that time and place might be appointed for delivering and interchanging the ratifications.

The governor was so well known to the commissioners, that neither the plausibility of his letter, nor the very Christian manner in which it was written, made any deep impressions upon them. They replied, in short, that the peace was matter of joy to them, and they wished the continuance of it in Europe, and in all the plantations abroad. They gave assurances, that the preservation of it should be their constant endeavour. Nevertheless, they gave no intimations that they desired a nearer union, or to ratify the agreement. The Dutch governor had not observed it himself; they considered the Dutch as mere intruders, and were growing daily more able to defend themselves against their encroachments: they were, therefore, determined to do nothing further relative to the affair.

They observed to the governor, that he had made no reparation of the damages he had done the colonies, and that they had not heard that he designed to make any: that they heard he yet laid claim to Oyster bay, and that he had made no proper resignation of Greenwich. They desired him to be explicit on these points.1

The last year, complaints were made to the court at New-Haven, that the inhabitants of Greenwich were under little government, and demeaned themselves in a lawless manner. They admitted of drunkenness among themselves, and among the Indians, by reason of which, damages were done to themselves and to the towns in the vicinity, and the public peace was disturbed. They received children and servants, who fled from the correction of their parents and masters, and unlawfully joined persons in wed-lock, with other misdemeanors.

Upon this, the general court asserted their right to Greenwich, and ordered the inhabitants to submit to their jurisdiction. But they continued much in the same state, and sent a letter to the court in May, denying their jurisdiction, and refusing any sub-jection to the colony, unless they should be compelled to it, by the parliament. The court, therefore, resolved, that, unless they should appear before the court, and make their submission, by the 20th of June, Richard Crab and others, who were the most stubborn among them, should be arrested and punished, according to law. They, therefore, some time after, subjected their persons and estates to the government of New-Haven.

Uncas, though friendly to the English, appears to have been a proud, mischievous sachem, who, by his haughty carriage and provoking language, was often embroiling the country, and bring-ing trouble upon himself and the colonies. He made an assault upon the Podunk Indians, at Hartford. He, or his brother, in-

1Records of the united colonies.


1657]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

189

vaded the Norwootucks. He upbraided the Narragansets of their dead sachems, and challenged them to fight. Among other in-stances of misconduct, he proved treacherous to the Montauket sachem, and joined with Ninigrate, in his perfidious practices. By these means, the country was so disquieted, that it was with great difficulty the commissioners maintained the general peace. They interposed, and obliged Uncas to make restitution to the Indians, whom he had injured. They prohibited his making war, without their consent and advice. They endeavored to quiet and conciliate the natives; but they found them, whether they were friends or foes, to be a troublesome people. After all their pre-cautions, the country was still more alarmed the next year.

In April, 1657, the Indians committed a horrid murder at Far-mington, and besides Mesapano, who was the principal actor, the Norwootuck and Pocomtock Indians were supposed to be ac-complices.

The Montaukets, after all the trouble and expense, which the English had been at for their defence, became tumultuous, and did great damage to the inhabitants of Southampton.

The general court at Hartford, April 9th, gave orders that the Indians, who perpetrated the murder at Farmington, should be apprehended, and that the sachems of the Pocomtock and Nor-wootuck Indians should deliver up the delinquents among them.

Major Mason was ordered, with a detachment, to Long-Island, to bring the Indians there to a just and peaceable conduct, and adjust affairs between them and the English.1

At the general election in Connecticut, May 21st, 1657, Mr. John Winthrop was elected governor, and Mr. Thomas Wells deputy-governor. Mr. Webster was chosen the first magistrate. The other officers were the same who had been appointed the last year. The freemen, at the election in New-Haven, May 27th, made no alteration in their magistrates.

The general court at Hartford, this year, was uncommonly thin, consisting of twenty-two members only. The danger of the plan-tations, and of particular families, from the hostile state of the Ind-ians, appears to have been the reason. The Montaukets, Mohea-gans, Narragansets, and Norwootucks, engaged in implacable wars with each other. They would pursue one another into the English plantations, and even into their houses, and kill each other in the presence of the families, to their great alarm and astonish-ment. Uncas was so pressed by the Narragansets, that Connecti-cut was obliged to send men to his fortress, to assist him in defend-ing himself against them. The Narragansets, in several instances, threatened and plundered the inhabitants of Connecticut.

Therefore, when the commissioners met, in September, they sent messengers to them, demanding that they should cease from

1Records of Connecticut.


190

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1657

war, until their grievances, and the grounds of their contentions, should be heard. They assured them, that they would hear and determine impartially, without favoring any of the parties. They represented to them the covenants which they had made with the English, and the entire inconsistency of their conduct, with those engagements. They also prohibited all fighting in the Eng-lish plantations.

This year, the colony of New-Haven, and indeed all the New-England colonies, sustained a heavy loss in the death of governor Eaton.1 He was a minister's son, born at Stony Stratford, in Ox-fordshire; was educated an East India merchant, and was some-time deputy-governor of the company, trading to the East Indies.2 For several years, he was agent for the king of England at the court of Denmark. After his return, he was a merchant of great business and respectability, in the city of London.

Upon the Laudean persecution, he left his native country, and came into New-England with Mr. Davenport, his minister, in 1637. He was one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts, and soon after his arrival was chosen one of the magistrates of that colony. Upon the settlement of New-Haven, he was chosen governor of the colony, and was annually re-elected until his death. He is represented as comely and personable, and is said to have appeared upon the bench with a dignity and majesty, which admit of no description. The impartiality with which he administered justice, was most exemplary, and his authority was not to be opposed. The wisdom, gravity, and integrity of his ad-ministration, were viewed with universal admiration. In honor to his memory, and the good services which he had rendered the colony, his funeral charges were borne, and a handsome monu-ment erected at the public expense.3

Nearly at the same time, died his son-in-law, Edward Hopkins, Esquire, for a number of years governor of Connecticut. He con-ducted the affairs of government with great wisdom and integrity, and was universally beloved. He was a gentleman of exemplary

1He died January 7th, 1657,* in the 67th year of his age.

2This statement is corrected by Savage (Winthrop, 1:272), who explains the error by inferring that the term East country used by Mather referred at the time to countries bordering on the Baltic. This should also apply to the statement on p. 74 regarding Eaton.-J. T.

3His private was not less amiable than his public character. In conversation, he was affable, courteous, and generally pleasant; but always grave and cautious. He was pious and strictly moral. His meekness, patience, and fortitude, were sin-gular.

In the conduct of his family, he was strict, prudent, and happy. Though it sometimes consisted of not less than thirty persons, yet they were under the most perfect order and government. They were all assembled morning and evening, and the governor, after reading the scriptures, and making devout and useful ob-servations upon them, prayed with great reverence and pertinency. On the sab-bath, and other days of public devotion, he spent an hour or two with his family, in instructing them in the duties of faith and practice; and in recommending to

*Old style. The date used in the official record makes this confusing, although it is correct.-J. T.


1657]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

191

piety, righteousness, and charity. In his family and secret devo-tions, he followed the example of governor Eaton. His charity was great and extensive. Besides the relief he dispensed to the poor, with his own hands, he gave considerable sums of money to others, to be disposed of to charitable purposes. When he went into England, on the occasion of his brother's death, who had been warden of the English fleet, he designed to return again to his family and friends, in New-England; but he was very soon par-ticularly noticed, and made first warden of the fleet, in the room of his brother. He was then chosen commissioner of the admi-ralty and navy; and finally member of parliament. These unex-pected preferments altered his designs, and determined him to send over for his family, and to spend the remainder of his days in his native country. He had been a consumptive man, attended with a cough, and spitting of blood, for more than thirty years. His constitution was now entirely wasted, and he died in the 58th year of his age.

His last will was highly expressive of that public spirit and charity, which had so distinguished him in life. His whole estate, in New-England, was given away to charitable purposes. He manifested his peculiar friendship to the family of Mr. Hooker, his pastor, at Hartford, by giving his relict, Mrs. Hooker, all the debts due from the family, to him; by giving to Mrs. Wilson, of Boston, Mr. Hooker's eldest daughter, his farm at Farmington, with all the houses, out-houses, and buildings upon it; and by legacies to several others of his descendants. All the remainder of his estate, in New-England, he bequeathed to his "father, The-ophilus Eaton, Esquire, master John Davenport, master John Cul-lick, and master William Goodwin, in full assurance of their trust and faithfulness, in disposing of it according to the true intent and purpose of him, the said Edward Hopkins, which was to give some encouragement, in those foreign plantations, for the breed-ing up of hopeful youths, in a way of learning, both at the gram-mar school and college, for the public service of the country, in future times." He also made a donation of five hundred pounds more, out of his estate in England, to the said trustees, in further prosecution of the same public ends, "for the upholding and pro-moting the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, in those parts of the earth." This last donation was considered as made to Har-

them the reading and study of the scriptures, secret devotion, the sanctification of the sabbath, and a devout and constant attendance on all divine institutions. On these days he sang praises, as well as prayed with his family. He was greatly be-loved by his domestics, as well as by the commonwealth. Indeed, there was no man, among the first planters of New-England, who had a more general acquaint-ance with public business, or who sustained a fairer character. His monument is kept up to the present time. Upon it are these expressive lines: "Eaton, so meek, so wise. so fam'd, so just, The Phoenix of our world here hides his dust: This name forget, New-England never must."


192

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1658

vard college, and, by virtue of a decree in chancery, was paid in 1710. The interest given in New-England, was estimated at about l,000l. sterling; and was appropriated to the support of the gram-mar schools in New-Haven, Hartford, and Hadley. The money originally belonged to New-Haven and Hartford; but as a con-siderable number of the people of Hartford afterwards removed to Hadley, and were principal settlers of that town, they received their proportion of the donation.

At a general court in Hartford, March 11th, 1658, a troop of thirty horsemen was established in Connecticut, and Richard Lord was appointed captain. This was the first in the colony.

May 20th there was a very considerable alteration with respect to governors and the council, both in Connecticut and New-Haven. At the election in Connecticut, Thomas Wells, Esquire, was elected governor, and John Winthrop, Esquire, deputy gov-ernor. To the magistrates last year, who were again re-chosen, there was an addition of Mr. Matthew Alien, Mr. Phelps, Mr. John Wells, Mr. Treat, Mr. Baker, Mr. Mulford, and Mr. Alexander Knowles. There appears to have been sixteen magistrates, and twenty-six deputies; in the whole, forty-two members.

On the election at New-Haven, Mr. Francis Newman was chosen governor, and William Leet, deputy governor.1 Mr. Jas­per Crane was added to the magistrates, and Mr. William Gibbard was appointed secretary.

This year a considerable settlement was made between Mistic and Pawcatuck rivers. This tract was called Pequot, and origi-nally belonged to New-London. The first man who settled upon this tract, was William Cheesebrough, from Rehoboth, in 1649. A complaint was exhibited against him for carrying on an illicit trade with the Indians, for repairing their arms, and endangering the public safety. The general court of Connecticut declared, that they had a clear title to those lands, and summoned him before them. They reprimanded him for settling upon them without their approbation; for withdrawing himself from Christian society and ordinances; and for unlawfully trading with and assisting the Indians. He confessed his faults;2 but pleaded, in excuse, that he had been encouraged by Mr. Winthrop, who claimed a right at Pawcatuck. He gave bonds for his good conduct, and was al-lowed to continue upon the land. The court promised him, that

1Mr. Stephen Goodyear, who had been deputy governor, with governor Eaton, through almost his whole administration, died this year, in London, and was either there, or on his passage, at this election. He appears to have been a worthy man, and left a respectable family.

2Cheesebrough does not appear to have confessed to any illicit trade with the Indians at Pawcatuck. The official record says "he acknowledged his former transgression," which must have been some transactions with the Indians at Reho-both, his former residence. After the jurisdiction of Connecticut was settled, Cheesebrough appears to have been a man of good standing, and a deputy to the general court.-J. T.


1658]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

193

if he would procure a sufficient number of planters, they would give them all proper encouragement, in making a permanent set-tlement. About ten or twelve families, this year, made settlements in that quarter; and, finding that there was a controversy between Connecticut and the Massachusetts, with respect both to title and jurisdiction, they, on the 30th of June, entered into a voluntary contract to govern themselves, and conduct their affairs in peace, until it should be determined to which colony they should submit. The principal planters were George Denison, Thomas Stanton, Thomas Shaw, William, Elisha, and Samuel Cheesebrough, and Moses and Walter Palmer. These, with some others, were signers of the voluntary compact.

At the meeting of the commissioners, the Massachusetts claimed that tract of country, by virtue of the assistance which they afforded Connecticut in the conquest of the Pequots. The commissioners resolved, "That the determination did arise only from the several rights of conquest, which were not greatly differ-ent; yet that being tender of any inconvenience which might arise to those who were already possessed, either by commission from Massachusetts or Connecticut, in any part thereof, should they be put off their improvements; also, upon inquiry, finding, that the Pequot country, which extented from Nehantick to Wekapaug, about ten miles eastward from Mistic river, may conveniently accommodate two plantations, did, respecting things as they then stood, conclude, that Mistic river be the bounds between them, as to propriety and jurisdiction, so far as conquest may give title. Always provided, that such as are already accommodated, by commission of either of the said governments, or have grants of any tracts of land, on either side of the Mystic river, be not mo-lested in any of their possessions or rights, by any other grants."

Upon the petition of the planters, October 19th, the general court of the Massachusetts made them a grant of eight miles from the mouth of Mystic river towards Wekapaug, and eight miles northward into the country, and named the plantation Southerton. It continued under the government of Massachusetts until after Connecticut obtained a royal charter.

This was a year of great sickness and mortality in Connecticut, and in New-England in general. Religious controversies, at the same time, ran high, and gave great trouble to church and com-monwealth. The Indians continued their wars with implacable animosity. The commissioners employed all their wisdom and influence to make peace; but they could not reconcile those blood-thirsty barbarians. The crops were light, and it was a year of fear, perplexity, and sorrow.1

1In a proclamation for a general fast, the intemperate season, thin harvest, sore visitation by sickness, and the sad, prolonged differences in the churches, are par-ticularized as matters of humiliation.


194

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1660

John Winthrop, Esq'r. was chosen governor of Connnecticut for the year 1659, and Thomas Wells, Esq'r. deputy governor. Captain Tapping and Mr. Robert Bond were elected magistrates, in the room of Mr. Knowles and Mr. Mulford.

At the election in New-Haven, the same governor and council were rechosen. Indeed, little alteration was made with respect to them, until the union of that colony with Connecticut.

At the October session, Cromwell bay, or Setauket, on Long-Island, at the desire of the inhabitants, was admitted as a member of the jurisdiction of Connecticut.

On May I7th, 1660, Mr. John Winthrop was rechosen gover-nor. This was the first time that any governor had been elected to that office more than once in two years. Major Mason was advanced to the place of deputy governor. The magistrates were Mr. Henry Clark, Mr. Wyllys, Mr. Phelps, Mr. Allen, Mr. Treat, Mr. Gould, Mr. Tapping, Mr. Ogden, Mr. Bond, Mr. Daniel Clark, and Mr. Talcott. Mr. Daniel Clark was secretary, and Mr. Talcott treasurer.

Mr. Webster and Mr. Wells appear now to be no more. They had been annually chosen into the magistracy, for about twenty years, and both had the honour of the chief seat of government.1

At this election, the freemen, having found by long experience, that the clause in the third fundamental article, incapacitating any person to be chosen governor more than once in two years, was prejudicial, rather than advantageous to the colony, resolved, that there should be liberty for the annual choice of the same person governor, or of any other whom they should judge best qualified to serve the commonwealth.

During the wars between Uncas and the Narragansets, they besieged his fort, near the bank of the Thames, until his provi-sions were nearly exhausted, and he found that he, and his men, must soon perish, by famine or sword, unless he could obtain speedy relief. In this crisis, he found means of communicating his danger to the scouts, who had been sent out from Saybrook fort. By his messengers, he represented the great danger the English, in those parts, would be in immediately, if they should suffer the Moheagans to be destroyed.

Upon this intelligence, one Thomas Leffingwell, an ensign at Saybrook, an enterprising, bold man, loaded a canoe with beef, corn, and pease, and, under cover of the night, paddled from Say-brook into the Thames, and had the address to get the whole into the fort. The enemy soon perceiving that Uncas was relieved,

1Four or five governors of Connecticut, governor Haynes, governor Wyllys, governors Wells and Webster, lie buried at Hartford, without a monument. Will-iam Leet, Esq. governor of New-Haven and Connecticut, also lies interred there, in the same obscure manner. Considering their many and important public ser-vices, this is remarkable; but their virtues have embalmed their names, and will render them venerable to the latest posterity.


1660]

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

195

raised the siege. For this service, Uncas gave said Leffingwell a deed of a great part, if not of the whole town of Norwich. In June, 1659, Uncas, with his two sons, Owaneco and Attawanhood, by a more formal and authentic deed, made over unto said Lef-fingwell, John Mason, Esq. the Rev. James Fitch, and others, consisting of thirty-five proprietors, the whole township of Nor-wich, which is about nine miles square. The company, at this time, gave Uncas and his sons about seventy pounds, as a further compensation for so large and fine a tract.

Preparations were immediately made for its settlement; and, this spring, the Rev. James Fitch, with the principal part of his church and congregation, removed from Saybrook, and planted the town of Norwich. Three or four planters joined them from New-London, and two or three from the towns of Plymouth and Marshfield, in Massachusetts. In 1663, the general assembly ordered that the deed should be recorded. The limits were after-wards ascertained, and the town received a patent of the whole.

The Moheagans were a great defence, and of essential service to the town for many years. They kept out their scouts and spies, and so constantly watched their enemies, that they gave the earliest notice of their approach, and were a continual de-fence against them. For this purpose, in times of danger, they often moved and pitched their wigwams near the town, and were a great terror to the enemy. Once the hostile Indians came near to the town, upon the sabbath, with a design to make a descent upon it; but, viewing it from an eminence, and seeing the Mo-heagan huts, they were intimidated, and went off without doing the least damage.1

This year, the town of Huntington, upon Long-Island, was re-ceived as a member of the Connecticut jurisdiction.

This general court ordered, that grand jurors should be ap-pointed in every town, to make presentment of all breaches of law, in their respective towns. The law required that the pre-sentments should be made to the particular court, in May and October.

The accounts with the heirs of George Fenwick, Esq. had not been closed, nor discharges given, relative to the purchase made of the fort at Saybrook, and the old patent of Connecticut. This was an occasion of great uneasiness among the people. The three towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Weathersfield, presented petitions to the general court, praying that the accounts might be adjusted, and the colony discharged. In consequence of these, a large committee was appointed to make a complete settlement with the said heirs. They having prepared the accounts for a final adjustment, the general court, at their session in October, author-ised them, in their behalf, to perfect and confirm the writings.

1Manuscripts from Norwich, and Records of Connecticut.


196

HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT.

[1660

The governor was authorised, in their name, to affix the public seal of the colony to those which were to be delivered to captain Cullick, and Elizabeth, his wife, heirs of the said George Fen-wick, Esq. and to receive of them the writings, to be delivered to the court, in favour of the colony.

Accordingly, on the 7th of October, the colony discharged Mr. John Cullick, and Elizabeth, his wife, their heirs, &c.; and the said John, and Elizabeth, his wife, gave an ample discharge to the colony of Connecticut, from all sums of money due to the said Fenwick, his heirs or assigns, by virtue of the agreements made with Mr. Fenwick, or purchase of the river's mouth.1

Thus, after the term of sixteen years, from the first, and four-teen from the second agreement with Mr. Fenwick, the colony completed a settlement respecting the fort and lands holden by him; and became legally possessed of the tract conveyed to the lords and gentlemen severally named in the patent.

Upon a final adjustment of the accounts, it appeared, that Mr. Cullick and the heirs of Mr. Fenwick2 were indebted 500 pounds sterling to the colony, which had been paid them, more than what was due according to the original agreements with Mr. Fenwick.

John Mason, Esq. now deputy governor, had some time since been authorised, in behalf of the colony, to purchase of Uncas all the lands, which he had reserved for himself and the Moheagans, in the deed of 1640, under the name of planting grounds. Having effected the purchase, he made a surrender of the lands, in the presence of the general court. The following is a minute of the transaction.

"Hartford, session of the general court, March 14, 1660.3

"The jurisdiction power over that land, which Uncas and Wawequa have made over to major Mason, is by him surrendered to this colony. Nevertheless, for the laying out of those lands to farms, or plantations, the court doth leave it in the hands of major Mason. It is also ordered and provided, with the consent of major Mason, that Uncas and Wawequa, and their Indians and successors, shall be supplied with sufficient planting ground at all times, as the court sees cause, out of that land. And the major doth reserve to himself a competency to make a farm."

For want of form, and a more legal manner of conveyance, with respect to those lands, originated the memorable Mason case, or controversy, as it was called. It continued about seventy years, and was an occasion of great trouble and expense to the colony. A statement of it will be made in the progress of this history.

1Mr. Cullick, who, for several years, had been one of the magistrates of Con-necticut, and secretary of the colony, had now removed his residence to Boston.

2This does not appear to have been money reclaimed by the colony for over-payment, but was a forced compromise by the General Court of a claim against Fenwick's estate for money alleged to have been paid, as "Fort rate," without valid consideration. See Public Records of the Colony of Conn., 1:573; see, also, note p. 119.-J. T.

3This according to the present mode of dating was March 14, 1661.